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Bioactive plasma electrolytic oxidation coatings—The role of the composition, microstructure, and electrochemical stability



A Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process was used to produce bioactive coatings on Ti. PEO coatings with Ca/P atomic ratio of 1.7 and 4.0 were fabricated and characterized with respect to their morphology, composition, and microstructure. AC and DC electrochemical tests were used to evaluate the effect of (i) organic additives (amino acids, proteins, vitamins, and antibiotics) in alpha-minimum essential medium (α-MEM) on electrochemical stability of noncoated and PEO-coated Ti and (ii) coating composition, microstructure, and corrosion behavior on the cell response in α-MEM. PEO-coated Ti showed higher corrosion resistance than the noncoated Ti in MEM with and without organic additives by an order of magnitude. The corrosion resistance in α-MEM decreased with time for nonmodified Ti and increased for PEO-coated Ti; the latter was because of the adsorption of the proteins in the coating pores which increased the diffusion resistance. The presence of Ca and P in titanium oxide coating at the Ca/P ratio exceeding that of any stoichiometric Ca–P–O and Ca–P–O–H compounds facilitates faster osteoblast cell adhesion. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 101B: 1524–1537, 2013.