Paget disease of bone (PDB) is a common disorder characterized by increased bone turnover at one of more sites throughout the skeleton. Genetic factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of PDB, and the most important predisposing gene is SQSTM1, which is mutated in about 10% of patients. Here we investigated the relationship between SQSTM1 mutation status, disease severity, and clinical outcome in 737 patients who took part in a randomized study of two different management strategies for the disease. Mutations of SQSTM1 were detected in 80 of 737 (10.9%) patients. Mutation carriers had an earlier age at diagnosis (59.4 ±11.5 versus 65.0 ± 10.4 years, p < .0001) and a greater number of affected bones (3.2 ± 1.2 versus 2.1 ± 1.2, p < .001) and more commonly required orthopedic surgery (26.2% versus 16.1%, p = .024) and bisphosphonate therapy (86.3% versus 75.2%, p = .01) than those without mutations. Quality of life, as assessed by the short-form-36 (SF36) physical summary score, was significantly reduced in carriers (34.0 ± 11.3 versus 37.1 ± 11.4, p = .036). During the study, fractures were more common in carriers (12.5% versus 5.3%, p = .011), although most of these occurred in unaffected bone. This study demonstrates that SQSTM1 mutations are strongly associated with disease severity and complications of PDB. Genetic testing for SQSTM1 mutations may be of value in identifying individuals at risk of developing severe disease, but further studies will be required to determine if a program of genetic testing and early intervention in these individuals would be cost-effective or be of benefit in preventing these complications. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.