SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Hernandez CJ. How can bone turnover modify bone strength independent of bone mass? Bone. 2008; 42: 101420.
  • 2
    Marshall D, Johnell O, Wedel H. Meta-analysis of how well measures of bone mineral density predict occurrence of osteoporotic fractures. BMJ. 1996; 312: 12549.
  • 3
    Chapurlat RD. Clinical pharmacology of potent new bisphosphonates for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Treat Endocrinol. 2005; 4: 11525.
  • 4
    Watts NB, Cooper C, Lindsay R, Eastell R, Manhart MD, Barton IP, van Staa TP, Adachi JD. Relationship between changes in bone mineral density and vertebral fracture risk associated with risedronate: greater increases in bone mineral density do not relate to greater decreases in fracture risk. J Clin Densitom. 2004; 7: 25561.
  • 5
    Sarkar S, Reginster JY, Crans GG, Diez-Perez A, Pinette KV, Delmas PD. Relationship between changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover and BMD to predict vertebral fracture risk. J Bone Miner Res. 2004; 19: 394401.
  • 6
    Hochberg MC, Ross PD, Black D, Cummings SR, Genant HK, Nevitt MC, Barrett-Connor E, Musliner T, Thompson D. Larger increases in bone mineral density during alendronate therapy are associated with a lower risk of new vertebral fractures in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Fracture Intervention Trial Research Group. Arthritis Rheum. 1999; 42: 124654.
  • 7
    Miller PD, Delmas PD, Huss H, Patel KM, Schimmer RC, Adami S, Recker RR. Increases in hip and spine bone mineral density are predictive for vertebral antifracture efficacy with ibandronate. Calcif Tissue Int. 2010; 87: 30513.
  • 8
    Austin M, Yang YC, Vittinghoff E, Adami S, Boonen S, Bauer DC, Bianchi G, Bolognese MA, Christiansen C, Eastell R, Grauer A, Hawkins F, Kendler DL, Oliveri B, McClung MR, Reid IR, Siris ES, Zanchetta J, Zerbini CA, Libanati C, Cummings SR; for the FREEDOM Trial. Relationship between bone mineral density changes with denosumab treatment and risk reduction for vertebral and nonvertebral fractures. J Bone Miner Res. Epub 2011 Nov 16. DOI: 10.1002/jbmr.1472.
  • 9
    Jacques R, Boonen S, Cosman F, Reid IR, Bauer D, Black DM, Eastell R. Relationship of changes in total hip bone mineral density to vertebral and non-vertebral fracture risk in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis treated with once-yearly zoledronic acid 5mg (ZOL): the HORIZON-PFT study. [Internet]. J Bone Miner Res. 2011; 26( Suppl 1):[cited 2012 Feb 12]. Available from: http://www.abstracts2view.com/asbmr/view.php?nu=ASBMR11L_A11006474-127&terms=.
  • 10
    Cummings SR, Karpf DB, Harris F, Genant HK, Ensrud K, LaCroix AZ, Black DM. Improvement in spine bone density and reduction in risk of vertebral fractures during treatment with antiresorptive drugs. Am J Med. 2002; 112: 2819.
  • 11
    Garnero P, Hausherr E, Chapuy MC, Marcelli C, Grandjean H, Muller C, Cormier C, Breart G, Meunier PJ, Delmas PD. Markers of bone resorption predict hip fracture in elderly women: the EPIDOS Prospective Study. J Bone Miner Res. 1996; 11: 15318.
  • 12
    Garnero P. Markers of bone turnover for the prediction of fracture risk. Osteoporos Int. 2000; 11: S5565.
  • 13
    Ivaska KK, Gerdhem P, Vaananen HK, Akesson K, Obrant KJ. Bone turnover markers and prediction of fracture: a prospective follow-up study of 1040 elderly women for a mean of 9 years. J Bone Miner Res. 2010; 25: 393403.
  • 14
    Civitelli R, Armamento-Villareal R, Napoli N. Bone turnover markers: understanding their value in clinical trials and clinical practice. Osteoporos Int. 2009; 20: 84351.
  • 15
    Eastell R, Hannon RA. Biomarkers of bone health and osteoporosis risk. Proc Nutr Soc. 2008; 67: 15762.
  • 16
    Bauer DC, Vittinghof E. Optimal thresholds, linear or nonlinear relationships of fracture risk reduction with therapy. J Bone Miner Res. 2008; 23: 1349.
  • 17
    Eastell R, Barton I, Hannon RA, Chines A, Garnero P, Delmas PD. Relationship of early changes in bone resorption to the reduction in fracture risk with risedronate. J Bone Miner Res. 2003; 18: 10516.
  • 18
    Borah B, Dufresne T, Nurre J, Phipps R, Chmielewski P, Wagner L, Lundy M, Bouxsein M, Zebaze R, Seeman E. Risedronate reduces intracortical porosity in women with osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res. 2010; 25: 417.
  • 19
    Reid IR, Miller PD, Brown JP, Kendler DL, Fahrleitner-Pammer A, Valter I, Maasalu K, Bolognese MA, Woodson G, Bone H, Ding B, Wagman RB, San Martin J, Ominsky MS, Dempster DW; Denosumab Phase 3 Bone Histology Study Group. Effects of denosumab on bone histomorphometry: the FREEDOM and STAND studies. J Bone Miner Res. 2010; 25: 225665.
  • 20
    Roschger P, Rinnerthaler S, Yates J, Rodan GA, Fratzl P, Klaushofer K. Alendronate increases degree and uniformity of mineralization in cancellous bone and decreases the porosity in cortical bone of osteoporotic women. Bone. 2001; 29: 18591.
  • 21
    Rosen HN, Moses AC, Garber J, Iloputaife ID, Ross DS, Lee SL, Greenspan SL. Serum CTX: a new marker of bone resorption that shows treatment effect more often than other markers because of low coefficient of variability and large changes with bisphosphonate therapy. Calcif Tissue Int. 2000; 66: 1003.
  • 22
    Hannon R, Blumsohn A, Naylor K, Eastell R. Response of biochemical markers of bone turnover to hormone replacement therapy: impact of biological variability. J Bone Miner Res. 1998; 13: 112433.
  • 23
    Tremollieres FA, Pouilles JM, Ribot C. Withdrawal of hormone replacement therapy is associated with significant vertebral bone loss in postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int. 2001; 12: 38590.
  • 24
    Cauley JA, Robbins J, Chen Z, Cummings SR, Jackson RD, LaCroix AZ, LeBoff M, Lewis CE, McGowan J, Neuner J, Pettinger M, Stefanick ML, Wactawski-Wende J, Watts NB. Effects of estrogen plus progestin on risk of fracture and bone mineral density: the Women's Health Initiative randomized trial. JAMA. 2003; 290: 172938.
  • 25
    Marcus R, Holloway L, Wells B, Greendale G, James MK, Wasilauskas C, Kelaghan J. The relationship of biochemical markers of bone turnover to bone density changes in postmenopausal women: results from the Postmenopausal Estrogen/Progestin Interventions (PEPI) trial. J Bone Miner Res. 1999; 14: 158395.
  • 26
    Gallagher JC, Rapuri PB, Haynatzki G, Detter JR. Effect of discontinuation of estrogen, calcitriol, and the combination of both on bone density and bone markers. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002; 87: 491423.
  • 27
    Rossouw JE, Anderson GL, Prentice RL, LaCroix AZ, Kooperberg C, Stefanick ML, Jackson RD, Beresford SA, Howard BV, Johnson KC, Kotchen JM, Ockene J. Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: principal results from the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2002; 288: 32133.
  • 28
    Jackson RD, Wactawski-Wende J, LaCroix AZ, Pettinger M, Yood RA, Watts NB, Robbins JA, Lewis CE, Beresford SA, Ko MG, Naughton MJ, Satterfield S, Bassford T. Effects of conjugated equine estrogen on risk of fractures and BMD in postmenopausal women with hysterectomy: results from the Women's Health Initiative randomized trial. J Bone Miner Res. 2006; 21: 81728.
  • 29
    Heiss G, Wallace R, Anderson GL, Aragaki A, Beresford SA, Brzyski R, Chlebowski RT, Gass M, LaCroix A, Manson JE, Prentice RL, Rossouw J, Stefanick ML. Health risks and benefits 3 years after stopping randomized treatment with estrogen and progestin. JAMA. 2008; 299: 103645.
  • 30
    Yates J, Barrett-Connor E, Barlas S, Chen YT, Miller PD, Siris ES. Rapid loss of hip fracture protection after estrogen cessation: evidence from the National Osteoporosis Risk Assessment. Obstet Gynecol. 2004; 103: 4406.
  • 31
    LaCroix AZ, Chlebowski RT, Manson JE, Aragaki AK, Johnson KC, Martin L, Margolis KL, Stefanick ML, Brzyski R, Curb JD, Howard BV, Lewis CE, Wactawski-Wende J. Health outcomes after stopping conjugated equine estrogens among postmenopausal women with prior hysterectomy: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2011; 305: 130514.
  • 32
    Lindsay R, Hart DM, MacLean A, Clark AC, Kraszewski A, Garwood J. Bone response to termination of oestrogen treatment. Lancet. 1978; 1: 13257.
  • 33
    Christiansen C, Christensen MS, Transbol I. Bone mass in postmenopausal women after withdrawal of oestrogen/gestagen replacement therapy. Lancet. 1981; 1: 45961.
  • 34
    Greenspan SL, Emkey RD, Bone HG, Weiss SR, Bell NH, Downs RW, McKeever C, Miller SS, Davidson M, Bolognese MA, Mulloy AL, Heyden N, Wu M, Kaur A, Lombardi A. Significant differential effects of alendronate, estrogen, or combination therapy on the rate of bone loss after discontinuation of treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med. 2002; 137: 87583.
  • 35
    Rossouw JE, Prentice RL, Manson JE, Wu L, Barad D, Barnabei VM, Ko M, LaCroix AZ, Margolis KL, Stefanick ML. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and risk of cardiovascular disease by age and years since menopause. JAMA. 2007; 297: 146577.
  • 36
    Migliaccio S, Brama M, Spera G. The differential effects of bisphosphonates, SERMS (selective estrogen receptor modulators), and parathyroid hormone on bone remodeling in osteoporosis. Clin Interv Aging. 2007; 2: 5564.
  • 37
    Silverman SL, Chines AA, Kendler DL, Kung AW, Teglbjærg CS, Felsenberg D, Mairon N, Constantine GD, Adachi JD; Bazedoxifene Study Group. Sustained efficacy and safety of bazedoxifene in preventing fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis: results of a 5-year, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Osteoporos Int. 2012; 23(1): 35163.
  • 38
    Siris ES, Harris ST, Eastell R, Zanchetta JR, Goemaere S, Diez-Perez A, Stock JL, Song J, Qu Y, Kulkarni PM, Siddhanti SR, Wong M, Cummings SR; Continuing Outcomes Relevant to Evista (CORE) Investigators. Skeletal effects of raloxifene after 8 years: results from the continuing outcomes relevant to Evista (CORE) study. J Bone Miner Res. 2005; 20: 151424.
  • 39
    Neele SJ, Evertz R, De Valk-De Roo G, Roos JC, Netelenbos JC. Effect of 1 year of discontinuation of raloxifene or estrogen therapy on bone mineral density after 5 years of treatment in healthy postmenopausal women. Bone. 2002; 30: 599603.
  • 40
    Dane C, Dane B, Cetin A, Erginbas M. Comparison of the effects of raloxifene and low-dose hormone replacement therapy on bone mineral density and bone turnover in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2007; 23: 398403.
  • 41
    Ettinger B, Black DM, Mitlak BH, Knickerbocker RK, Nickelsen T, Genant HK, Christiansen C, Delmas PD, Zanchetta JR, Stakkestad J, Gluer CC, Krueger K, Cohen FJ, Eckert S, Ensrud KE, Avioli LV, Lips P, Cummings SR. Reduction of vertebral fracture risk in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis treated with raloxifene: results from a 3-year randomized clinical trial. Multiple Outcomes of Raloxifene Evaluation (MORE) Investigators. JAMA. 1999; 282: 63745.
  • 42
    Delmas PD, Ensrud KE, Adachi JD, Harper KD, Sarkar S, Gennari C, Reginster JY, Pols HA, Recker RR, Harris ST, Wu W, Genant HK, Black DM, Eastell R. Efficacy of raloxifene on vertebral fracture risk reduction in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis: four-year results from a randomized clinical trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002; 87: 360917.
  • 43
    Ensrud KE, Stock JL, Barrett-Connor E, Grady D, Mosca L, Khaw KT, Zhao Q, Agnusdei D, Cauley JA. Effects of raloxifene on fracture risk in postmenopausal women: the Raloxifene Use for the Heart Trial. J Bone Miner Res. 2008; 23: 11220.
  • 44
    Cummings SR, Eckert S, Krueger KA, Grady D, Powles TJ, Cauley JA, Norton L, Nickelsen T, Bjarnason NH, Morrow M, Lippman ME, Black D, Glusman JE, Costa A, Jordan VC. The effect of raloxifene on risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women: results from the MORE randomized trial. Multiple Outcomes of Raloxifene Evaluation. JAMA. 1999; 281: 218997.
  • 45
    Martino S, Cauley JA, Barrett-Connor E, Powles TJ, Mershon J, Disch D, Secrest RJ, Cummings SR. Continuing outcomes relevant to Evista: breast cancer incidence in postmenopausal osteoporotic women in a randomized trial of raloxifene. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2004; 96: 175161.
  • 46
    Mosca L, Grady D, Barrett-Connor E, Collins P, Wenger N, Abramson BL, Paganini-Hill A, Geiger MJ, Dowsett SA, Amewou-Atisso M, Kornitzer M. Effect of raloxifene on stroke and venous thromboembolism according to subgroups in postmenopausal women at increased risk of coronary heart disease. Stroke. 2009; 40: 14755.
  • 47
    Fleisch H. Bisphosphonates: mechanisms of action. Endocr Rev. 1998; 19: 80100.
  • 48
    Nancollas GH, Tang R, Phipps RJ, Henneman Z, Gulde S, Wu W, Mangood A, Russell RG, Ebetino FH. Novel insights into actions of bisphosphonates on bone: differences in interactions with hydroxyapatite. Bone. 2006; 38: 61727.
  • 49
    Russell RG, Rogers MJ. Bisphosphonates: from the laboratory to the clinic and back again. Bone. 1999; 25: 97106.
  • 50
    Masarachia P, Weinreb M, Balena R, Rodan GA. Comparison of the distribution of 3H-alendronate and 3H-etidronate in rat and mouse bones. Bone. 1996; 19: 28190.
  • 51
    Devogelaer JP, Brown JP, Burckhardt P, Meunier PJ, Goemaere S, Lippuner K, Body JJ, Samsioe G, Felsenberg D, Fashola T, Sanna L, Ortmann CE, Trechsel U, Krasnow J, Eriksen EF, Garnero P. Zoledronic acid efficacy and safety over five years in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int. 2007; 18: 12118.
  • 52
    Black DM, Schwartz AV, Ensrud KE, Cauley JA, Levis S, Quandt SA, Satterfield S, Wallace RB, Bauer DC, Palermo L, Wehren LE, Lombardi A, Santora AC, Cummings SR. Effects of continuing or stopping alendronate after 5 years of treatment: the Fracture Intervention Trial Long-term Extension (FLEX): a randomized trial. JAMA. 2006; 296: 292738.
  • 53
    Watts NB, Chines A, Olszynski WP, McKeever CD, McClung MR, Zhou X, Grauer A. Fracture risk remains reduced one year after discontinuation of risedronate. Osteoporos Int. 2008; 19: 36572.
  • 54
    Schwartz AV, Bauer DC, Cummings SR, Cauley JA, Ensrud KE, Palermo L, Wallace RB, Hochberg MC, Feldstein AC, Lombardi A, Black DM. Efficacy of continued alendronate for fractures in women with and without prevalent vertebral fracture: the FLEX trial. J Bone Miner Res. 2010; 25: 97682.
  • 55
    Sorensen OH, Crawford GM, Mulder H, Hosking DJ, Gennari C, Mellstrom D, Pack S, Wenderoth D, Cooper C, Reginster JY. Long-term efficacy of risedronate: a 5-year placebo-controlled clinical experience. Bone. 2003; 32: 1206.
  • 56
    Reginster J, Minne HW, Sorensen OH, Hooper M, Roux C, Brandi ML, Lund B, Ethgen D, Pack S, Roumagnac I, Eastell R. Randomized trial of the effects of risedronate on vertebral fractures in women with established postmenopausal osteoporosis. Vertebral Efficacy with Risedronate Therapy (VERT) Study Group. Osteoporos Int. 2000; 11: 8391.
  • 57
    Black DM, Reid I, Boonen S, Bucci-Rechtweg C, Cauley JA, Cosman F, Cummings SR, Hue TF, Lippuner K, Lakatos P, Leung PC, Man Z, Martinez R, Tan M, Ruzycky ME, Su G, Eastell R. The effect of 3 versus 6 years of zoledronic acid treatment of osteoporosis: a randomized extension to the HORIZON-Pivotal Fracture Trial (PFT). J Bone Miner Res. 2012; 27: 24354.
  • 58
    Cosman F, Caulin F, Eastell R, Boos N, Palermo L, Reid KR, Cummings S, Black DM. Who is at highest risk for new vertebral fractures after 3 years of annual zoledronic acid and who should remain on treatment? [Internet]. J Bone Miner Res. 2011; 26( Suppl 1):Abstract 1248 [cited 2012 Feb 12]. Available from: http://www.abstracts2view.com/asbmr/view.php?nu=ASBMR11L_A11006478-147&terms=.
  • 59
    Grey A, Bolland MJ, Wattie D, Horne A, Gamble G, Reid IR. The antiresorptive effects of a single dose of zoledronate persist for two years: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial in osteopenic postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009; 94: 53844.
  • 60
    Grey A, Bolland M, Wattie D, Horne A, Gamble G, Reid IR. Prolonged antiresorptive activity of zoledronate: a randomized, controlled trial. J Bone Miner Res. 2010; 25: 22515.
  • 61
    McClung M, Miller P, Recknor C, Mesenbrink P, Bucci-Rechtweg C, Benhamou CL. Zoledronic acid for the prevention of bone loss in postmenopausal women with low bone mass: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol. 2009; 114: 9991007.
  • 62
    Eriksen EF. Normal and pathological remodeling of human trabecular bone: three dimensional reconstruction of the remodeling sequence in normals and in metabolic bone disease. Endocr Rev. 1986; 7: 379408.
  • 63
    Abrahamsen B. Adverse effects of bisphosphonates. Calcif Tissue Int. 2010; 86: 42135.
  • 64
    U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Zoledronic acid for osteoporosis (marketed as Reclast): renal impairment and acute renal failure. Drug Safety Newsletter. 2009; 2(2): 1315.
  • 65
    Lewiecki EM, Miller PD. Renal safety of intravenous bisphosphonates in the treatment of osteoporosis. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2007; 6: 66372.
  • 66
    King AE, Umland EM. Osteonecrosis of the jaw in patients receiving intravenous or oral bisphosphonates. Pharmacotherapy. 2008; 28: 66777.
  • 67
    Rizzoli R, Reginster JY, Boonen S, Bréart G, Diez-Perez A, Felsenberg D, Kaufman JM, Kanis JA, Cooper C. Adverse reactions and drug-drug interactions in the management of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Calcif Tissue Int. 2011; 89: 91104.
  • 68
    Center JR, Bliuc D, Nguyen ND, Nguyen TV, Eisman JA. Osteoporosis medication and reduced mortality risk in elderly women and men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011; 96: 100614.
  • 69
    Abrahamsen B, Pazianas M, Eiken P, Russell RG, Eastell R. Esophageal and gastric cancer incidence and mortality in alendronate users. J Bone Miner Res. Epub 2011 Nov 23. DOI: 10.1002/jbmr.1481.
  • 70
    Miller PD, Bolognese MA, Lewiecki EM, McClung MR, Ding B, Austin M, Liu Y, San Martin J; Amg Bone Loss Study Group. Effect of denosumab on bone density and turnover in postmenopausal women with low bone mass after long-term continued, discontinued, and restarting of therapy: a randomized blinded phase 2 clinical trial. Bone. 2008; 43: 2229.
  • 71
    Cummings SR, San Martin J, McClung MR, Siris ES, Eastell R, Reid IR, Delmas P, Zoog HB, Austin M, Wang A, Kutilek S, Adami S, Zanchetta J, Libanati C, Siddhanti S, Christiansen C; FREEDOM Trial. Denosumab for prevention of fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. N Engl J Med. 2009; 361: 75665.
  • 72
    Papapoulos S, Bone H, Brandi ML, Brown J, Chapurlat R, Czerwinski E, Daizadeh N, Grauer A, Haller C, Krieg MA, Libanati C, Man Z, Mellstrom D, Radominski SC, Reginster J, Resch H, Roman-Ivorra J, Roux C, Cummings S. Four years of denosumab exposure in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis: results from the first year extension of the FREEDOM trial. J Bone Miner Res. 2010; 25( Suppl 1): S181.
  • 73
    Bone HG, Chapurlat R, Brandi ML, Brown JP, Czerwinski E, Daizadeh NS, Grauer A, Krieg MA, Libanati C, Man Z, Mellstrom D, Radominski S, Reginster JY, Resch H, Roman JA, Roux C, Cummings SR, Papapoulos S. Denosumab treatment for 5 years of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis: results from the first two years of the FREEDOM trial extension [Internet]. J Bone Miner Res. 2011; 25( Suppl 1):Abstract 1065 [cited 2012 Feb 12]. Available from: http://www.abstracts2view.com/asbmr/view.php?nu=ASBMR11L_A11006377-62&terms=.
  • 74
    Miller PD, Wagman RB, Peacock M, Lewiecki EM, Bolognese MA, Weinstein RL, Ding B, San Martin J, McClung MR. Effect of denosumab on bone mineral density and biochemical markers of bone turnover: six-year results of a phase 2 clinical trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011; 96: 394402.
  • 75
    Bone HG, Bolognese MA, Yuen CK, Kendler DL, Miller PD, Yang YC, Grazette L, San Martin J, Gallagher JC. Effects of denosumab treatment and discontinuation on bone mineral density and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal women with low bone mass. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011; 96: 97280.
  • 76
    Eisman JA, Bone HG, Hosking DJ, McClung MR, Reid IR, Rizzoli R, Resch H, Verbruggen N, Hustad CM, DaSilva C, Petrovic R, Santora AC, Ince BA, Lombardi A. Odanacatib in the treatment of postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density: three-year continued therapy and resolution of effect. J Bone Miner Res. 2011; 26: 24251.
  • 77
    McClung M, Lewiecki M, Bolognese MA, Peacock M, Weinstein R, Ding B, Geller ML, Grauer A, Wagman RB, Miller P. Effects of denosumab on bone mineral density and biochemical markers of bone turnover: 8-year results of a phase 2 clinical trial [Internet]. J Bone Miner Res. 2011; 26( Suppl 1):Abstract 1061 [cited 2012 Feb 12]. Available from: http://www.abstracts2view.com/asbmr/view.php?nu=ASBMR11L_A11006300-62&terms=.
  • 78
    Fizazi K, Carducci M, Smith M, Damiao R, Brown J, Karsh L, Milecki P, Shore N, Rader M, Wang H, Jiang Q, Tadros S, Dansey R, Goessl C. Denosumab versus zoledronic acid for treatment of bone metastases in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer: a randomised, double-blind study. Lancet. 2011; 377: 81322.
  • 79
    Henry DH, Costa L, Goldwasser F, Hirsh V, Hungria V, Prausova J, Scagliotti GV, Sleeboom H, Spencer A, Vadhan-Raj S, von Moos R, Willenbacher W, Woll PJ, Wang J, Jiang Q, Jun S, Dansey R, Yeh H. Randomized, double-blind study of denosumab versus zoledronic acid in the treatment of bone metastases in patients with advanced cancer (excluding breast and prostate cancer) or multiple myeloma. J Clin Oncol. 2011; 29: 112532.
  • 80
    Keaveny TM. Biomechanical computed tomography-noninvasive bone strength analysis using clinical computed tomography scans. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2010; 1192: 5765.
  • 81
    Baron R, Ferrari S, Russell RG. Denosumab and bisphosphonates: different mechanisms of action and effects. Bone. 2011; 48: 67792.
  • 82
    Russell RG, Watts NB, Ebetino FH, Rogers MJ. Mechanisms of action of bisphosphonates: similarities and differences and their potential influence on clinical efficacy. Osteoporos Int. 2008; 19: 73359.
  • 83
    Seeman E, Delmas PD, Hanley DA, Sellmeyer D, Cheung AM, Shane E, Kearns A, Thomas T, Boyd SK, Boutroy S, Bogado C, Majumdar S, Fan M, Libanati C, Zanchetta J. Microarchitectural deterioration of cortical and trabecular bone: differing effects of denosumab and alendronate. J Bone Miner Res. 2010; 25: 188694.
  • 84
    Seeman E, Libanati C, Austin M, Boyd S, Zebaze R, Hanley DA, Zanchetta JR, Grauer A, Nilezikian JP. The transitory increase in PTH following denosumab administration is associated with reduced intracortical porosity: a distinctive attribute of denosumab therapy [Internet]. J Bone Miner Res. 2011; 26( Suppl 1):Abstract 1064 [cited 2012 Feb 12]. Available from: http://www.abstracts2view.com/asbmr/view.php?nu=ASBMR11L_A11006972-62&terms=.
  • 85
    Watts NB, Diab DL. Long-term use of bisphosphonates in osteoporosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010; 95: 155565.