• 1
    Cooper C, Campion G, Melton LJ III. Hip fractures in the elderly: a world-wide projection. Osteoporos Int. 1992; 2(6): 2859.
  • 2
    Genant HK, Cooper C, Poor G, Reid I, Ehrlich G, Kanis J, Nordin BE, Barrett-Connor E, Black D, Bonjour JP, Dawson-Hughes B, Delmas PD, Dequeker J, Ragi Eis S, Gennari C, Johnell O, Johnston CC Jr, Lau EM, Liberman UA, Lindsay R, Martin TJ, Masri B, Mautalen CA, Meunier PJ, Khaltaev N, et al. Interim report and recommendations of the World Health Organization Task-Force for Osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int. 1999; 10(4): 25964.
  • 3
    Gennari L, Bilezikian JP. Osteoporosis in men. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2007; 36(2): 399419.
  • 4
    Papaioannou A, Morin S, Cheung AM, Atkinson S, Brown JP, Feldman S, Hanley DA, Hodsman A, Jamal SA, Kaiser SM, Kvern B, Siminoski K, Leslie WD. Scientific Advisory Council of Osteoporosis Canada. 2010 clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis in Canada: summary. CMAJ. 2010; 182(17): 186473.
  • 5
    Thomas-John M, Codd MB, Manne S, Watts NB, Mongey AB. Risk factors for the development of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures among older men. J Rheumatol. 2009; 36(9): 194752.
  • 6
    Leslie WD, O'Donnell S, Jean S, Lagace C, Walsh P, Bancej C, Morin S, Hanley DA, Papaioannou A. Trends in hip fracture rates in Canada. JAMA. 2009; 302(8): 8839.
  • 7
    Sanders KM, Nicholson GC, Ugoni AM, Pasco JA, Seeman E, Kotowicz MA. Health burden of hip and other fractures in Australia beyond 2000. Projections based on the Geelong Osteoporosis Study. Med J Aust. 1999; 170(10): 46770.
  • 8
    Brecht JG, Schadlich PK. Burden of illness imposed by osteoporosis in Germany. Eur J Health Econ. 2000; 1: 2632.
  • 9
    Johnell O, Kanis JA, Jonsson B, Oden A, Johansson H, De Laet C. The burden of hospitalised fractures in Sweden. Osteoporos Int. 2005; 16(2): 2228.
  • 10
    Levy P, Levy E, Audran M, Cohen-Solal M, Fardellone P, Le Parc JM. The cost of osteoporosis in men: the French situation. Bone. 2002; 30(4): 6316.
  • 11
    Lippuner K, Golder M, Greiner R. Epidemiology and direct medical costs of osteoporotic fractures in men and women in Switzerland. Osteoporos Int. 2005; 16( Suppl 2): S817.
  • 12
    Maravic M, Le Bihan C, Landais P, Fardellone P. Incidence and cost of osteoporotic fractures in France during 2001. A methodological approach by the national hospital database. Osteoporos Int. 2005; 16(12): 147580.
  • 13
    Ray NF, Chan JK, Thamer M, Melton LJI. Medical expenditures for the treatment of osteoporotic fractures in the United States in 1995: report from the National Osteoporosis Foundation. J Bone Miner Res. 1997; 12(1): 2435.
  • 14
    Leslie WD, Metge CJ, Azimaee M, Lix LM, Finlayson GS, Morin SN, Caetano P. Direct costs of fractures in Canada and trends 1996-2006 : A population-based cost-of-illness analysis. J Bone Miner Res. 2011 Oct; 26(10): 241929.
  • 15
    Goeree R, O'Brien B, Pettitt D, Cuddy L, Ferraz M, Adachi JD. An assessment of the burden of illness due to osteoporosis in Canada. J Soc Obstet Gynaecol Can. 1996; 18( Suppl July): 1524.
  • 16
    Fraser LA, Ioannidis G, Adachi JD, Pickard L, Kaiser SM, Prior J, Brown JP, Hanley DA, Olszynski WP, Anastassiades T, Jamal S, Josse R, Goltzman D, Papaioannou A. Fragility fractures and the osteoporosis care gap in women: the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study. Osteoporos Int. 2011; 22(3): 78996.
  • 17
    Papaioannou A, Kennedy CC, Ioannidis G, Gao Y, Sawka AM, Goltzman D, Tenenhouse A, Pickard L, Olszynski WP, Davison KS, Kaiser S, Josse RG, Kreiger N, Hanley DA, Prior JC, Brown JP, Anastassiades T, Adachi JD. The osteoporosis care gap in men with fragility fractures: the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study. Osteoporos Int. 2008; 19(4): 5817.
  • 18
    Discharge Abstract Database (DAD) Abstracting Manual 2007-2008. Ottawa: Canadian Institute for Health Information; 2007.
  • 19
    National Ambulatory Care Reporting System (NACRS). Database Background and General Data Limitations Documentation, 2007-2008. Ottawa: Canadian Institute for Health Information; 2008.
  • 20
    National Rehabilitation Reporting System (NRS) Data Quality Documentation 2007-2008. Ottawa: Canadian Institute for Health Information; 2009.
  • 21
    Home Care Reporting System [Internet]. Ottawa: Canadian Institute for Health Information; [cited 2012 Mar 27]. Available from: 2010.
  • 22
    Continuing Care Reporting System (CCRS) Specifications Manual. Ottawa: Canadian Institute for Health Information; 2009.
  • 23
    Intercontinental Marketing Services (IMS) Health Canada [Internet]. Toronto: IMS Health; [cited 2012 Mar 27]. Available from 2010.
  • 24
    Brogan PharmaStat ® Database. Pharmaceutical Market Data [Internet]. Toronto: IMS Brogan Inc; [cited 2012 Mar 27]. Available from 2010.
  • 25
    Kreiger N, Joseph L, Mackenzie T, Poliquin S, Brown J, Prior J, Rittmaster R, Tenenhouse A. The Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos): background, rationale, methods. Can J Aging. 1999; 18(3): 37687.
  • 26
    Labour force survey estimates (LFS), by sex and detailed age group, annual. Ottowa: Statistics Canada; 2010.
  • 27
    Labour force survey estimates (LFS), wages of employees by type of work, National Occupational Classification for Statistics (NOC-S), sex and age group. Ottawa: Statistics Canada; 2010.
  • 28
    Manitoba Centre for Health Policy. Population Health Research Data Repository [Internet]. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba; [cited 2012 Mar 27]. Available from 2010.
  • 29
    International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Canada (ICD-10-CA). 10th Revision [Internet]. Ottawa: Canadian Institute for Health Information; [cited 2012 Mar 27]. Available from 2009.
  • 30
    Mackey DC, Lui LY, Cawthon PM, Bauer DC, Nevitt MC, Cauley JA, Hillier TA, Lewis CE, Barrett-Connor E, Cummings SR. High-trauma fractures and low bone mineral density in older women and men. JAMA. 2007; 298(20): 23818.
  • 31
    Canadian MIS Database (CMDB), Hospital Financial Performance Indicators, 1999-2000 to 2008-2009. [Canadian MIS Database (CMDB), Hospital Financial Performance Indicators] [Internet]. Ottawa: Canadian Institute for Health Information. 2011. [cited 2012 Mar 27]. Available from
  • 32
    Schedule of Benefits for Physician Services under the Health Insurance Act [Internet]. Toronto: Ontario Ministry of Health and Long Term Care. 2010. [cited 2012 Mar 27]. Available from
  • 33
    Medical Advisory Secretariat. The Falls/Fractures Economic Model in Ontario Residents Aged 65 Years and Over (FEMOR). Ontario Health Technology Assessment Series 2008; 8(6) [Internet]. [cited 2012 Mar 27]. Available from
  • 34
    Leslie WD, O'Donnell S, Lagace C, Walsh P, Bancej C, Jean S, Siminoski K, Kaiser S, Kendler DL, Jaglal S. Population-based Canadian hip fracture rates with international comparisons. Osteoporos Int. 2010; 21(8): 131722.
  • 35
    National Health Expenditure Trends,1975 to 2010. Ottawa: Canadian Institute for Health Information; 2010.
  • 36
    Thompson SG, Barber JA. How should cost data in pragmatic randomised trials be analysed?. BMJ. 2000; 320(7243): 1197200.
  • 37
    Vanness D, Tosteson A. Estimating the opportunity costs of osteoporosis in the United States. Top Geriatr Rehabil. 2005; 21(1): 416.
  • 38
    Haussler B, Gothe H, Gol D, Glaeske G, Pientka L, Felsenberg D. Epidemiology, treatment and costs of osteoporosis in Germany—the BoneEVA Study. Osteoporos Int. 2007; 18(1): 7784.
  • 39
    Papaioannou A, Parkinson W, Ferko N, Probyn L, Ioannidis G, Jurriaans E, Cox G, Cook RJ, Kumbhare D, Adachi JD. Prevalence of vertebral fractures among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Canada. Osteoporos Int. 2003; 14(11): 9137.
  • 40
    Majumdar SR, Villa-Roel C, Lyons KJ, Rowe BH. Prevalence and predictors of vertebral fracture in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Respir Med. 2010; 104(2): 2606.