• 1
    Smith MC Jr, Rambaut PC, Vogel JM, Whittle MW. Bone mineral measurement—experiment M078. In: Johnston RS, Dietlein LF, editors. Biomedical results from Skylab (NASA SP-377). Washington, DC: National Aeronautics and Space Administration; 1977. p. 18390.
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    Lang T, LeBlanc A, Evans H, Lu Y, Genant H, Yu A. Cortical and trabecular bone mineral loss from the spine and hip in long-duration spaceflight. J Bone Miner Res. 2004; 19(6): 100612.
  • 3
    Smith SM, Wastney ME, O'Brien KO, Morukov BV, Larina IM, Abrams SA, Davis-Street JE, Oganov V, Shackelford LC. Bone markers, calcium metabolism, and calcium kinetics during extended-duration space flight on the Mir space station. J Bone Miner Res. 2005; 20(2): 20818.
  • 4
    Sibonga JD, Cavanagh PR, Lang TF, LeBlanc AD, Schneider VS, Shackelford LC, Smith SM, Vico L. Adaptation of the skeletal system during long-duration spaceflight. Clin Rev Bone Miner Metab. 2008; 5(4): 24961.
  • 5
    Smith SM, Zwart SR, Kloeris V, Heer M. Nutritional biochemistry of space flight. New York: Nova Science Publishers; 2009.
  • 6
    Kohrt WM, Bloomfield SA, Little KD, Nelson ME, Yingling VR; American College of Sports Medicine. American College of Sports Medicine Position Stand: physical activity and bone health. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2004; 36(11): 19856.
  • 7
    Shackelford LC, LeBlanc AD, Driscoll TB, Evans HJ, Rianon NJ, Smith SM, Spector E, Feeback DL, Lai D. Resistance exercise as a countermeasure to disuse-induced bone loss. J Appl Physiol. 2004; 97(1): 11929.
  • 8
    Smith SM, Zwart SR, Heer M, Lee SMC, Baecker N, Meuche S, Macias BR, Shackelford LC, Schneider S, Hargens AR. WISE-2005: supine treadmill exercise within lower body negative pressure and flywheel resistive exercise as a countermeasure to bed rest-induced bone loss in women during 60-day simulated microgravity. Bone. 2008; 42(3): 57281.
  • 9
    Schneider SM, Amonette WE, Blazine K, Bentley J, Lee SM, Loehr JA, Moore AD Jr, Rapley M, Mulder ER, Smith SM. Training with the International Space Station interim resistive exercise device. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003; 35: 193545.
  • 10
    Lee SM, Cobb K, Loehr JA, Nguyen D, Schneider SM. Foot-ground reaction force during resistive exercise in parabolic flight. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2004; 75(5): 40512.
  • 11
    Cavanagh PR, Genc KO, Gopalakrishnan R, Kuklis MM, Maender CC, Rice AJ. Foot forces during typical days on the international space station. J Biomech. 2010; 43(11): 21828.
  • 12
    Smith SM, Zwart SR. Nutritional biochemistry of spaceflight. Adv Clin Chem. 2008; 46: 87130.
  • 13
    Smith SM, Zwart SR, Block G, Rice BL, Davis-Street JE. The nutritional status of astronauts is altered after long-term space flight aboard the International Space Station. J Nutr. 2005; 135(3): 43743.
  • 14
    Loehr JA, Lee SM, English KL, Sibonga J, Smith SM, Spiering BA, Hagan RD. Musculoskeletal adaptations to training with the advanced resistive exercise device. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011; 43(1): 14656.
  • 15
    LeBlanc A, Schneider V, Shackelford L, West S, Oganov V, Bakulin A, Voronin L. Bone mineral and lean tissue loss after long duration space flight. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact. 2000; 1: 15760.
  • 16
    Zwart SR, Gibson CR, Mader TH, Ericson K, Ploutz-Snyder R, Heer MA, Smith SM. Vision changes after space flight are related to alterations in folate- and vitamin B12-dependent one-carbon metabolism. J Nutr. 2012 Mar; 142(3): 42731.
  • 17
    Smith SM, Heer M, Wang Z, Huntoon CL, Zwart SR. Long-duration space flight and bed rest effects on testosterone and other steroids. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012; 97(1): 2708.
  • 18
    Zwart SR, Booth SL, Peterson JW, Wang Z, Smith SM. Vitamin K status in spaceflight and ground-based models of spaceflight. J Bone Miner Res. 2011; 26(5): 94854.
  • 19
    Zwart SR, Pierson D, Mehta S, Gonda S, Smith SM. Capacity of omega-3 fatty acids or eicosapentaenoic acid to counteract weightlessness-induced bone loss by inhibiting NF-kappaB activation: from cells to bed rest to astronauts. J Bone Miner Res. 2010; 25(5): 104957.
  • 20
    Smith SM, Wastney ME, Morukov BV, Larina IM, Nyquist LE, Abrams SA, Taran EN, Shih CY, Nillen JL, Davis-Street JE, Rice BL, Lane HW. Calcium metabolism before, during, and after a 3-mo spaceflight: kinetic and biochemical changes. Am J Physiol. 1999; 277(1 Pt 2): R110.
  • 21
    Smith SM, Zwart SR, Heer MA, Baecker N, Evans HJ, Feiveson AH, Shackelford LC, Leblanc AD. Effects of artificial gravity during bed rest on bone metabolism in humans. J Appl Physiol. 2009; 107(1): 4753.
  • 22
    Smith SM, Gardner KK, Locke J, Zwart SR. Vitamin D supplementation during Antarctic winter. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009; 89(4): 10928.
  • 23
    Zwart SR, Mehta SK, Ploutz-Snyder RJ, Bourbeau Y, Locke JP, Pierson DL, Smith SM. Response to vitamin D supplementation during Antarctic winter is related to BMI, and supplementation can mitigate Epstein-Barr virus reactivation. J Nutr. 2011; 141: 6927.
  • 24
    Zwart SR, Oliver SM, Fesperman JV, Kala G, Krauhs J, Ericson K, Smith SM. Nutritional status assessment before, during, and after long-duration head-down bed rest. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2009; 80(5 Suppl): A1522.
  • 25
    Smith SM, Davis-Street JE, Fontenot TB, Lane HW. Assessment of a portable clinical blood analyzer during space flight. Clin Chem. 1997; 43(6 Pt 1): 105665.
  • 26
    Sibonga JD, Evans HJ, Sung HG, Spector ER, Lang TF, Oganov VS, Bakulin AV, Shackelford LC, LeBlanc AD. Recovery of spaceflight-induced bone loss: bone mineral density after long-duration missions as fitted with an exponential function. Bone. 2007; 41(6): 9738.
  • 27
    Spector ER, Smith SM, Sibonga JD. Skeletal effects of long-duration head-down bed rest. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2009 May; 80(5 Suppl): A238.
  • 28
    Smith SM, Davis-Street JE, Rice BL, Nillen JL, Gillman PL, Block G. Nutritional status assessment in semiclosed environments: ground-based and space flight studies in humans. J Nutr. 2001; 131(7): 205361.
  • 29
    Soller BR, Cabrera M, Smith SM, Sutton JP. Smart medical systems with application to nutrition and fitness in space. Nutrition. 2002; 18(10): 9306.
  • 30
    Zwart SR, Kloeris VL, Perchonok MH, Braby L, Smith SM. Assessment of nutrient stability in foods from the space food system after long-duration spaceflight on the ISS. J Food Sci. 2009; 74(7): H20917.
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    Caillot-Augusseau A, Lafage-Proust MH, Soler C, Pernod J, Dubois F, Alexandre C. Bone formation and resorption biological markers in cosmonauts during and after a 180-day space flight (Euromir 95). Clin Chem. 1998; 44(3): 57885.
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    Stein TP, Blanc S. Does protein supplementation prevent muscle disuse atrophy and loss of strength?. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2011; 51(9): 82834.
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    Ihle R, Loucks AB. Dose-response relationships between energy availability and bone turnover in young exercising women. J Bone Miner Res. 2004; 19(8): 123140.
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    Lane HW, Gretebeck RJ, Schoeller DA, Davis-Street J, Socki RA, Gibson EK. Comparison of ground-based and space flight energy expenditure and water turnover in middle-aged healthy male US astronauts. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997; 65(1): 412.
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    Stein TP, Leskiw MJ, Schluter MD, Hoyt RW, Lane HW, Gretebeck RE, LeBlanc AD. Energy expenditure and balance during spaceflight on the space shuttle. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 1999; 276: R173948.
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    Stein TP. The relationship between dietary intake, exercise, energy balance and the space craft environment. Pflugers Arch. 2000; 441(2–3 Suppl): R2131.
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    Stein TP, Gaprindashvili T. Spaceflight and protein metabolism, with special reference to humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994; 60(5): 806S19S.
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    Stein TP, Leskiw MJ, Schluter MD. Effect of spaceflight on human protein metabolism. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 1993; 264: E8248.
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    Lucey AJ, Paschos GK, Cashman KD, Martinez JA, Thorsdottir I, Kiely M. Influence of moderate energy restriction and seafood consumption on bone turnover in overweight young adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008; 87(4): 104552.
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    Institute of Medicine. Dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2011.
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    Keyak JH, Koyama AK, LeBlanc A, Lu Y, Lang TF. Reduction in proximal femoral strength due to long-duration spaceflight. Bone. 2009; 44(3): 44953.