• 1
    Szulc P, Beck TJ, Marchand F, Delmas PD. Low skeletal muscle mass is associated with poor structural parameters of bone and impaired balance in elderly men—the MINOS study. J Bone Miner Res. 2005; 20: 7219.
  • 2
    Blain H, Jaussent A, Thomas E, Micallef J-P, Dupuy A-M, Bernard PL, Mariano-Goulart D, Cristol J-P, Sultan C, Rossi M, Picot M-C. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass is the strongest independent factor associated with femoral neck bone mineral density in adult and older men. Exp Gerontol. 2010; 45: 67984.
  • 3
    Szulc P. Change in bone size and geometry with aging. In: Orwoll ES, Bilezikian JP, Vanderschueren D, editors. Osteoporosis in men. 2nd ed. Burlington, MA: Elsevier; 2010. p. 193206.
  • 4
    Szulc P, Duboeuf F, Marchand F, Delmas PD., Hormonal and lifestyle determinants of appendicular skeletal muscle mass in men: the MINOS study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004; 80: 496503.
  • 5
    Proctor DN, Melton LJ, Khosla S, Crowson CS, O'Connor K, Riggs BL. Relative influence of physical activity, muscle mass and strength on bone density. Osteoporos Int. 2000; 11: 94452.
  • 6
    Baumgartner RN, Koehler KM, Gallagher D, Romero L, Heymsfield SB, Ross RR, Garry PJ, Lindeman RD. Epidemiology of sarcopenia among the elderly in New Mexico. Am J Epidemiol. 1998; 147: 75563.
  • 7
    Van Langendonck L, Claessens AL, Lefevre J, Thomis M, Philippaerts R, Delvaux K, Lysens R, Vanden Eynde B, Beunen G. Association between bone mineral density (DXA), body structure, and body composition in middle-aged men. Am J Hum Biol. 2002; 14: 73542.
  • 8
    Baumgartner RN, Stauber PM, Koehler KM, Romero L, Garry PJ. Associations of fat and muscle masses with bone mineral in elderly men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1996; 63: 36572.
  • 9
    Taes YEC, Lapauw B, Vanbillemont G, Bogaert V, De Bacquer D, Zmierczak H, Goemaere S, Kaufman J-M. Fat mass is negatively associated with cortical bone size in young healthy male siblings. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009; 94: 232531.
  • 10
    Lebrasseur NK, Achenbach SJ, Melton LJ 3rd, Amin S, Khosla S. Skeletal muscle mass is associated with bone geometry and microstructure and serum IGFBP-2 levels in adult women and men. J Bone Miner Res. 2012 May 23. [Epub ahead of print]
  • 11
    Manini TM, Clark BC. Dynapenia and aging: an update. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2012; 67: 2840.
  • 12
    Blain H, Vuillemin A, Teissier A, Hanesse B, Guillemin F, Jeandel C. Influence of muscle strength and body weight and composition on regional bone mineral density in healthy women aged 60 years and over. Gerontology. 2001; 47: 20712.
  • 13
    Di Monaco M, Di Monaco R, Manca M, Cavanna A. Handgrip strength is an independent predictor of distal radius bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. Clin Rheumatol. 2000; 19: 4736.
  • 14
    Aydin G, Atalar E, Keles I, Tosun A, Zög G, Keles H, Orkun S. Predictive value of grip strength for bone mineral density in males: site specific or systemic?. Rheumatol Int. 2006; 27: 1259.
  • 15
    Foley KT, Owings TM, Pavol MJ, Grabiner MD. Maximum grip strength is not related to bone mineral density of the proximal femur in older adults. Calcif Tissue Int. 1999; 64: 2914.
  • 16
    Cauley JA, Fullman RL, Stone KL, Zmuda JM, Bauer DC, Barrett-Connor E, Ensrud K, Lau AMC, Orwoll ES. Factors associated with the lumbar spine and proximal femur bone mineral density in older men. Osteoporos Int. 2005; 16: 152537.
  • 17
    Cousins JM, Petit MA, Paudel ML, Taylor BC, Hughes JM, Cauley JA, Zmuda JM, Cawthon PM, Ensrud KE. Muscle power and physical activity are associated with bone strength in older men: the osteoporotic fractures in men study. Bone. 2010; 47: 20511.
  • 18
    Cauley JA, Blackwell T, Zmuda JM, Fullman RL, Ensrud KE, Stone KL, Barrett-Connor E, Orwoll ES. Correlates of trabecular and cortical volumetric bone mineral density at the femoral neck and lumbar spine: The Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study (MrOS). J Bone Miner Res. 2010; 25: 195871.
  • 19
    Barbour KE, Zmuda JM, Strotmeyer ES, Horwitz MJ, Boudreau R, Evans RW, Ensrud KE, Petit MA, Gordon CL, Cauley JA. Correlates of trabecular and cortical volumetric bone mineral density of the radius and tibia in older men: The Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study. J Bone Miner Res. 2010; 25: 101728.
  • 20
    Chaitou A, Boutroy S, Vilayphiou N, Munoz F, Delmas PD, Chapurlat R, Szulc P. Association between bone turnover rate and bone microarchitecture in men—the STRAMBO study. J Bone Miner Res. 2010; 25: 231323.
  • 21
    Boutroy S, Bouxsein ML, Munoz F, Delmas PD. In vivo assessment of trabecular bone microarchitecture by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005; 90: 650815.
  • 22
    Szulc P, Uusi-Rasi K, Claustrat B, Marchand F, Beck TJ, Delmas PD. Role of sex steroids in the regulation of bone morphology in men. The MINOS study. Osteoporos Int. 2004; 15: 90917.
  • 23
    Szulc P, Hawa G, Boutroy S, Vilayphiou N, Schoppet M, Chapurlat R, Hofbauer LC. Cortical bone status is associated with serum osteoprotegerin concentration in men: the STRAMBO study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011; 96: 221626.
  • 24
    Szulc P, Claustrat B, Munoz F, Marchand F, Delmas PD. Assessment of the role of 17beta-oestradiol in bone metabolism in men: does the assay technique matter? The MINOS study. Clin Endocrinol. 2004; 61: 44757.
  • 25
    Szulc P, Munoz F, Marchand F, Chapuy MC, Delmas PD. Role of vitamin D and parathyroid hormone in the regulation of bone turnover and bone mass in men: the MINOS study. Calcif Tissue Int. 2003; 73: 52030.
  • 26
    Schoenau E, Neu CM, Beck B, Manz F, Rauch F. Bone mineral content per muscle cross-sectional area as an index of the functional muscle-bone unit. J Bone Miner Res. 2002; 17: 1095101.
  • 27
    Kanehisa H, Yata H, Ikegawa S, Fukunaga T. A cross-sectional study of the size and strength of the lower leg muscles during growth. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1995; 72: 1506.
  • 28
    Goodpaster BH, Park SW, Harris TB, Kritchevsky SB, Nevitt M, Schwartz AV, Simonsick EM, Tylavsky FA, Visser M, Newman AB. The loss of skeletal muscle strength, mass, and quality in older adults: the health, aging and body composition study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2006; 61: 105964.
  • 29
    Magarey AM, Boulton TJ, Chatterton BE, Schultz C, Nordin BE. Familial and environmental influences on bone growth from11-17 years. Acta Paediatr. 1999; 88: 120410.
  • 30
    Lorentzon M, Mellström D, Ohlsson C. Association of amount of physical activity with cortical bone size and trabecular volumetric BMD in young adult men: the GOOD study. J Bone Miner Res. 2005; 20: 193643.
  • 31
    Daly RM, Bass SL. Lifetime sport and leisure activity participation is associated with greater bone size, quality and strength in older men. Osteoporos Int. 2006; 17: 125867.
  • 32
    Khosla S, Melton LJ 3rd, Robb RA, Camp JJ, Atkinson EJ, Oberg AL, Rouleau PA, Riggs BL. Relationship of volumetric BMD and structural parameters at different skeletal sites to sex steroid levels in men. J Bone Miner Res. 2005; 20: 73040.
  • 33
    Payette H, Roubenoff R, Jacques PF, Dinarello CA, Wilson PW, Abad LW, Harris T. Insulin-like growth factor-1 and interleukin 6 predict sarcopenia in very old community-living men and women: the Framingham Heart Study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2003; 51: 123743.
  • 34
    Szulc P, Joly-Pharaboz MO, Marchand F, Delmas PD. Insulin-like growth factor I is a determinant of hip bone mineral density in men less than 60 years of age: MINOS study. Calcif Tissue Int. 2004; 74: 3229.
  • 35
    Windahl SH, Andersson N, Börjesson AE, Swanson C, Svensson J, Movérare-Skrtic S, Sjögren K, Shao R, Lagerquist MK, Ohlsson C. Reduced bone mass and muscle strength in male 5α-reductase type 1 inactivated mice. PLoS One. 2011; 6: e21402.
  • 36
    Chang G, Pakin SK, Schweitzer ME, Saha PK, Regatte RR. Adaptations in trabecular bone microarchitecture in Olympic athletes determined by 7T MRI. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2008; 27: 108995.
  • 37
    Swift JM, Swift SN, Nilsson MI, Hogan HA, Bouse SD, Bloomfield SA. Cancellous bone formation response to simulated resistance training during disuse is blunted by concurrent alendronate treatment. J Bone Miner Res. 2011; 26: 214050.
  • 38
    Stenholm S, Tiainen K, Rantanen T, Sainio P, Heliövaara M, Impivaara O, Koskinen S. Long-term determinants of muscle strength decline: prospective evidence from the 22-year mini-Finland follow-up survey. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2012; 60: 7785.
  • 39
    Szulc P, Debiesse E, Boutroy S, Vilauphiou N, Chapurlat R. Poor trabecular microarchitecture in male current smokers: the cross-sectional STRAMBO study. Calcif Tissue Int. 2011; 89: 30311.
  • 40
    Auyeung TW, Lee JS, Kwok T, Leung J, Ohlsson C, Vandenput L, Leung PC, Woo J. Testosterone but not estradiol level is positively related to muscle strength and physical performance independent of muscle mass: a cross-sectional study in 1489 older men. Eur J Endocrinol. 2011; 164: 8117.
  • 41
    Zhang XH, Liu XS, Vasilic B, Wehrli FW, Benito M, Rajapakse CS, Snyder PJ, Guo XE. In vivo microMRI-based finite element and morphological analyses of tibial trabecular bone in eugonadal and hypogonadal men before and after testosterone treatment. J Bone Miner Res. 2008; 23: 142634.
  • 42
    Visser M, Deeg DJ, Lips P. Low vitamin D and high parathyroid hormone levels as determinants of loss of muscle strength and muscle mass (sarcopenia): the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003; 88: 576672.
  • 43
    Chaitou A, Boutroy S, Vilayphiou N, Varennes A, Richard M, Blaizot S, Munoz F, Delmas PD, Goudable J, Chapurlat R, Szulc P. Association of bone microarchitecture with parathyroid hormone concentration and calcium intake in men: the STRAMBO study. Eur J Endocrinol. 2011; 165: 1519.
  • 44
    Anakwe RE, Huntley JS, McEachan JE. Grip strength and forearm circumference in a healthy population. J Hand Surg Eur. 2007; 32: 2039.
  • 45
    Lam H, Hu M, Qin YX. Alteration of contraction-to-rest ratio to optimize trabecular bone adaptation induced by dynamic muscle stimulation. Bone. 2011; 48: 399405.
  • 46
    Cheung CL, Tan KC, Bow CH, Soong CS, Loong CH, Kung AW. Low handgrip strength is a predictor of osteoporotic fractures: cross-sectional and prospective evidence from the Hong Kong Osteoporosis Study. Age. 2011 Aug 19. [Epub ahead of print].
  • 47
    Lang T, Cauley JA, Tylavsky F, Bauer D, Cummings S, Harris TB. Computed tomographic measurements of thigh muscle cross-sectional area and attenuation coefficient predict hip fracture: the health, aging, and body composition study. J Bone Miner Res. 2010; 25: 5139.
  • 48
    Lan TY, Hou SM, Chen CY, Chang WC, Lin J, Lin CC, Liu WJ, Shih TF, Tai TY. Risk factors for hip fracture in older adults: a case-control study in Taiwan. Osteoporos Int. 2010; 21: 77384.
  • 49
    Szulc P, Boutroy S, Vilayphiou N, Chaitou A, Delmas PD, Chapurlat R. Cross-sectional analysis of the association between fragility fractures and bone microarchitecture in older men: the STRAMBO study. J Bone Miner Res. 2011; 26: 135867.
  • 50
    Taes Y, Lapauw B, Griet V, De Bacquer D, Goemaere S, Zmierczak H, Kaufman JM. Prevalent fractures are related to cortical bone geometry in young healthy men at age of peak bone mass. J Bone Miner Res. 2010; 25: 143340.