• 1
    Bolland MJ, Barber PA, Doughty RN, et al. Vascular events in healthy older women receiving calcium supplementation: randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2008;336:262266.
  • 2
    Pentti K, Tuppurainen MT, Honkanen R, et al. Use of calcium supplements and the risk of coronary heart disease in 52-62-year-old women: the Kuopio Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention Study. Maturitas. 2009;63:7378.
  • 3
    Holman CD, Bass AJ, Rosman DL, et al. A decade of data linkage in Western Australia: strategic design, applications and benefits of the WA data linkage system. Aust Health Rev. 2008;32:766777.
  • 4
    Prince RL, Devine A, Dhaliwal SS, Dick IM. Effects of calcium supplementation on clinical fracture and bone structure: results of a 5-year, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in elderly women. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166:869875.
  • 5
    Britt H, Scahill S, Miller G. ICPC PLUS for community health? A feasibility study. Health Inf Manag. 1997;27:171175.
  • 6
    Ireland P, Jolley D, Giles G, et al. Development of the Melbourne FFQ: a food frequency questionnaire for use in an Australian prospective study involving an ethnically diverse cohort. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1994;3:1931.
  • 7
    Friedewald WT, Levy RI, Fredrickson DS. Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem. 1972;18:499502.
  • 8
    Levey AS, Coresh J, Greene T, et al. Expressing the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study equation for estimating glomerular filtration rate with standardized serum creatinine values. Clin Chem. 2007;53:766772.
  • 9
    Mathew TH, Johnson DW, Jones GR. Chronic kidney disease and automatic reporting of estimated glomerular filtration rate: revised recommendations. Med J Aust. 2007;187:459463.
  • 10
    Myers GL, Miller WG, Coresh J, et al. Recommendations for improving serum creatinine measurement: a report from the Laboratory Working Group of the National Kidney Disease Education Program. Clin Chem. 2006;52:518.
  • 11
    World Health Organization. Manual of the international statistical classification of diseases, injuries, and causes of death : based on the recommendations of the ninth revision conference, 1975, and adopted by the Twenty-ninth World Health Assembly, 1975 revision. ed. World Health Organization, Geneva, 1977. pp 2v.
  • 12
    National Centre for Classification in Health (Australia). The International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems, 10th revision, Australian modification (ICD-10-AM), 1st ed. National Centre for Classification in Health, Sydney, 1998.
  • 13
    Barr EL, Tonkin AM, Welborn TA, Shaw JE. Validity of self-reported cardiovascular disease events in comparison to medical record adjudication and a statewide hospital morbidity database: the AusDiab study. Intern Med J. 2009;39:4953.
  • 14
    Heckbert SR, Kooperberg C, Safford MM, et al. Comparison of self-report, hospital discharge codes, and adjudication of cardiovascular events in the Women's Health Initiative. Am J Epidemiol. 2004;160:11521158.
  • 15
    Teng TH, Finn J, Hung J, Geelhoed E, Hobbs M. A validation study: how effective is the Hospital Morbidity Data as a surveillance tool for heart failure in Western Australia? Aust N Z J Public Health. 2008;32:405407.
  • 16
    Hackam DG, Anand SS. Emerging risk factors for atherosclerotic vascular disease: a critical review of the evidence. JAMA. 2003;290:932940.
  • 17
    Grant AM, Avenell A, Campbell MK, et al. Oral vitamin D3 and calcium for secondary prevention of low-trauma fractures in elderly people (Randomised Evaluation of Calcium Or vitamin D, RECORD): a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2005;365:16211628.
  • 18
    Hsia J, Heiss G, Ren H, et al. Calcium/vitamin D supplementation and cardiovascular events. Circulation. 2007;115:846854.
  • 19
    Bostick RM, Kushi LH, Wu Y, Meyer KA, Sellers TA, Folsom AR. Relation of calcium, vitamin D, and dairy food intake to ischemic heart disease mortality among postmenopausal women. Am J Epidemiol. 1999;149:151161.
  • 20
    Umesawa M, Iso H, Date C, et al. Dietary intake of calcium in relation to mortality from cardiovascular disease: the JACC Study. Stroke. 2006;37:2026.
  • 21
    Van der Vijver LP, van der Waal MA, Weterings KG, Dekker JM, Schouten EG, Kok FJ. Calcium intake and 28-year cardiovascular and coronary heart disease mortality in Dutch civil servants. Int J Epidemiol. 1992;21:3639.
  • 22
    Reid IR, Mason B, Horne A, et al. Effects of calcium supplementation on serum lipid concentrations in normal older women: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Med. 2002;112:343347.
  • 23
    Zemel MB, Shi H, Greer B, Dirienzo D, Zemel PC. Regulation of adiposity by dietary calcium. FASEB J. 2000;14:11321138.
  • 24
    Zemel MB, Thompson W, Milstead A, Morris K, Campbell P. Calcium and dairy acceleration of weight and fat loss during energy restriction in obese adults. Obes Res. 2004;12:582590.
  • 25
    Reid IR, Horne A, Mason B, Ames R, Bava U, Gamble GD. Effects of calcium supplementation on body weight and blood pressure in normal older women: a randomized controlled trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90:38243829.
  • 26
    Parikh SJ, Yanovski JA. Calcium intake and adiposity. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;77:281287.
  • 27
    Major GC, Chaput JP, Ledoux M, et al. Recent developments in calcium-related obesity research. Obes Rev. 2008;9:428445.
  • 28
    Jacqmain M, Doucet E, Despres JP, Bouchard C, Tremblay A. Calcium intake, body composition, and lipoprotein-lipid concentrations in adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;77:14481452.
  • 29
    Lappe JM, Heaney RP. Calcium supplementation: Results may not be generalisable. BMJ. 2008;336:403 author reply 404.
  • 30
    Tang BM, Eslick GD, Nowson C, Smith C, Bensoussan A. Use of calcium or calcium in combination with vitamin D supplementation to prevent fractures and bone loss in people aged 50 years and older: a meta-analysis. Lancet. 2007;370:657666.