• 1
    Catalona W. Management of cancer of the prostate. N Engl J Med. 1994;331:9961004.
  • 2
    Cooperberg MR, Grossfeld GD, Lubeck DP, Carroll PR. National practice patterns and time trends in androgen ablation for localized prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2003;95:9819.
  • 3
    Zeliadt SB, Potosky AL, Etzioni R, Ramsey SD, Penson DF. Racial disparity in primary and adjuvant treatment for nonmetastatic prostate cancer: SEER-Medicare trends. 1991 to 1999; Urology. 2004;64:11716.
  • 4
    Shahinian VB, Kuo Y-F, Freeman JL, Goodwin JS. Risk of fracture after androgen deprivation for prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 2005;352:15464.
  • 5
    Krupski TL, Smith MR, Lee WC, Pashos CL, Brandman J, Wang Q, Botteman M, Litwin MS. Natural history of bone complications in men with prostate carcinoma initiating androgen deprivation therapy. Cancer. 2004;101:5419.
  • 6
    Townsend MF, Sanders WH, Northway RO, Graham SDJ. Bone fractures associated with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists used in the treatment of prostate cancer. Cancer. 1997;79:54550.
  • 7
    Hatano T, Oishi Y, Furuta A, Iwamuro S, Tashiro K. Incidence of bone fracture in patients receiving luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists for prostate cancer. BJU Int. 2000;86:44952.
  • 8
    Oefelein MG, Ricchuiti V, Conrad W, Seftel A, Bodner D, Goldman H, Resnick M. Skeletal fracture associated with androgen suppression induced osteoporosis: the clinical incidence and risk factors for patients with prostate cancer. J Urol. 2001;166:17248.
  • 9
    Nevitt MC, Ettinger B, Black DM, Stone K, Jamal SA, Ensrud K, Segal M, Genant HK, Cummings SR. The association of radiographically detected vertebral fractures with back pain and function: a prospective study. Ann Intern Med. 1998;128(10):793800.
  • 10
    Ensrud KE, Thompson DE, Cauley JA, Nevitt MC, Kado DM, Hochberg MC, Santora AC 2nd, Black DM. Prevalent vertebral deformities predict mortality and hospitalization in older women with low bone mass. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2000;48:2419.
  • 11
    Bouxsein ML. Mechanisms of osteoporosis therapy: a bone strength perspective. Clin Cornerstone. 2003;2:1321.
  • 12
    Hochberg MC, Greenspan S, Wasnich RD, Miller P, Thompson DE, Ross PD. Changes in bone density and turnover explain the reductions in incidence of nonvertebral fractures that occur during treatment with antiresorptive agents. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002;87:158692.
  • 13
    Cummings SR, Karpf DB, Harris F, Genant HK, Ensrud K, LaCroix AZ, Black DM. Improvement in spine bone density and reduction in risk of vertebral fractures during treatment with antiresorptive drugs. Am J Med. 2002;112:2819.
  • 14
    Sullivan S, Wagner J, Resnick NM, Nelson J, Perera S, Greenspan SL. Vertebral fractures and the misclassification of osteoporosis in men with prostate cancer. J Clin Densitom. 2011;14:34853.
  • 15
    Borah B, Dufresne E, Chmielwski PA, Johnson TD, Chines A, Manhart MD. Risedronate preserves bone architecture in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis as measured by three-dimensional microcomputed tomography. Bone. 2004;34:73646.
  • 16
    Wehrli FW, Saha PK, Gomberg BR, Song HK, Snyder PJ, Benito M, Wright A, Weening R. Role of magnetic resonance for assessing structure and function of trabecular bone. Top Magn Reson Imaging. 2002;13(5):33556.
  • 17
    Wehrli FW, Gomberg BR, Saha PK, Song HK, Hwang SN, Snyder PJ. Digital topological analysis of in vivo magnetic resonance microimages of trabecular bone reveals structural implications of osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res. 2001;16:152031.
  • 18
    Wehrli FW. Structural and functional assessment of trabecular and cortical bone by micro magnetic resonance imaging. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2007;25:390409.
  • 19
    Greenspan SL, Perera S, Recker R, Wagner JM, Greeley P, Gomberg BR, Seaman P, Kleerekoper M. Changes in trabecular microarchitecture in postmenopausal women on bisphosphonate therapy. Bone. 2010;46(4):100610.
  • 20
    Kanis JA. for the WHO Study Group. Assessment of fracture risk and its application to screening for postmenopausal osteoporosis: synopsis of a WHO report. Osteoporos Int. 1994;4:36881.
  • 21
    Greenspan SL, Nelson JB, Trump DL, Wagner JM, Miller ME, Perera S, Resnick NM. Skeletal health following continuation, withdrawal or delay of alendronate in men with prostate cancer on androgen deprivation therapy. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26:442634.
  • 22
    Genant HK, Wu CY, van Kuijk C, Nevitt MC. Vertebral fracture assessment using a semiquantitative technique. J Bone Miner Res. 1993;8:113748.
  • 23
    Kanis JA, Bianchi G, Bilezikian JP, Kaufman JM, Khosla S, Orwoll E, Seeman E. Towards a diagnostic and therapeutic consensus in male osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int. 2011;22:278998.
  • 24
    Wehrli FW, Hwang SN, Ma J, Song HK, Ford JC, Haddad JG. Cancellous bone volume and structure in the forearm: noninvasive assessment with MR microimaging and image processing. Radiology. 1998;206:34757.
  • 25
    Gomberg BR, Wehrli FW, Vasilić B, Weening RH, Saha PK, Song HK, Wright AC. Reproducibility and error sources of Micro-MRI-based trabecular bone structural parameters of the distal radius and tibia. Bone. 2004;35:26676.
  • 26
    Apfel CC, Kranke P, Greim CA, Roewer N. What can be expected from risk scores for predicting postoperative nausea and vomiting?. Br J Anaesth. 2001;86(6):8227.
  • 27
    Greenspan SL, Coates P, Sereika SM, Nelson JB, Trump DL, Resnick NM. Bone loss after initiation of androgen deprivation therapy in patients with prostate cancer. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90:64107.
  • 28
    Bruder JM, Ma J, Basler JW, Welch MD. Prevelence of osteopenia and osteoporosis by central and peripheral bone mineral density in men with prostate cancer during androgen-deprivation therapy. Urology. 2006;67:1525.
  • 29
    Adler RA, Hastings FW, Petkov VI. Treatment thresholds for osteoporosis in men on androgen deprivation therapy: T-score versus FRAX. Osteoporos Int. 2010;21:64753.
  • 30
    Saylor PJ, Morton RA, Hancock ML, Barnette KG, Steiner MS, Smith MR. Factors associated with vertebral fractures in men treated with androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer. J Urol. 2011;186:4826.
  • 31
    Kanis JA. on behalf of the World Health Organization Scientific Group.Assessment of osteoporosis at the primary health care level. University of Sheffield. UK: WHO Collaborating Center. 2008.
  • 32
    Looker AC, Orwoll ES, Johnston CC J Jr, Lindsay RL, Wahner HW, Dunn WL, Calvo MS, Harris TB, Heyse SP. Prevalence of low femoral bone density in older U.S. adults from NHANES III. J Bone Miner Res. 1997;12(11):17618.
  • 33
    Black DM, Cummings SR, Stone K, Hudes E, Palermo L, Steiger P. A new approach to defining normal vertebral dimensions. J Bone Miner Res. 1991;6(8):88392.
  • 34
    Ferrar L, Jiang G, Cawthon PM, San Valentin R, Fullman R, Lambert L, Cummings SR, Black DM, Orwoll E, Barrett-Connor E, Ensrud K, Fink HA, Eastell R, Eastell R; Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study. Identification of vertebral fracture and non-osteoporotic short vertebral height in men: the MrOS Study. J Bone Miner Res. 2007;22:143441.
  • 35
    Khosla S, Amin S, Orwoll E. Osteoporosis in men. Endocr Rev. 2008;29:44164.
  • 36
    Greenspan SL. Approach to the prostate cancer patient with bone disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93(1):27.