• 1
    van Staa TP, Geusens P, Bijlsma JW, Leufkens HG, Cooper C. Clinical assessment of the long-term risk of fracture in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2006;54(10):310412.
  • 2
    Huusko TM, Korpela M, Karppi P, Avikainen V, Kautiainen H, Sulkava R. Threefold increased risk of hip fractures with rheumatoid arthritis in Central Finland. Ann Rheum Dis. 2001;60(5):5212.
  • 3
    Orstavik RE, Haugeberg G, Mowinckel P, Hoiseth A, Uhlig T, Falch JA, Halse JI, McCloskey E, Kvien TK. Vertebral deformities in rheumatoid arthritis: a comparison with population-based controls. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164(4):4205.
  • 4
    Redlich K, Smolen JS. Inflammatory bone loss: pathogenesis and therapeutic intervention. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2012;11(3):23450.
  • 5
    Schuit SC, van der Klift M, Weel AE, de Laet CE, Burger H, Seeman E, Hofman A, Uitterlinden AG, van Leeuwen JP, Pols HA. Fracture incidence and association with bone mineral density in elderly men and women: the Rotterdam Study. Bone. 2004;34(1):195202.
  • 6
    Marshall D, Johnell O, Wedel H. Meta-analysis of how well measures of bone mineral density predict occurrence of osteoporotic fractures. BMJ. 1996;312(7041):12549.
  • 7
    Delmas PD, Seeman E. Changes in bone mineral density explain little of the reduction in vertebral or nonvertebral fracture risk with anti-resorptive therapy. Bone. 2004;34(4):599604.
  • 8
    Seeman E, Delmas PD. Bone quality—the material and structural basis of bone strength and fragility. N Engl J Med. 2006;354(21):225061.
  • 9
    Dambacher MA, Neff M, Radspieler HT, Rueegsegger P, Qin L. In vivo bone mineral density structures in humans: from Instom over Densiscan to XtremCT.: In: Qin L, Genant HK, Griffith JF, Leung KS, editors Advanced bioimaging technologies in assessment of quality of bone and scaffold biomaterials. Berlin: Springer-Verlag; p 6578. 2007.
  • 10
    Boutroy S, Van Rietbergen B, Sornay-Rendu E, Munoz F, Bouxsein ML, Delmas PD. Finite element analysis based on in vivo HR-pQCT images of the distal radius is associated with wrist fracture in postmenopausal women. J Bone Miner Res. 2008;23(3):3929.
  • 11
    Stein EM, Liu XS, Nickolas TL, Cohen A, Thomas V, McMahon DJ, Zhang C, Yin PT, Cosman F, Nieves J, Guo XE, Shane E. Abnormal microarchitecture and reduced stiffness at the radius and tibia in postmenopausal women with fractures. J Bone Miner Res. 2010;25(12):257281.
  • 12
    Sornay-Rendu E, Boutroy S, Munoz F, Delmas PD. Alterations of cortical and trabecular architecture are associated with fractures in postmenopausal women, partially independent of decreased BMD measured by DXA: the OFELY study. J Bone Miner Res. 2007;22(3):42533.
  • 13
    Burghardt AJ, Issever AS, Schwartz AV, Davis KA, Masharani U, Majumdar S, Link TM. High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomographic imaging of cortical and trabecular bone microarchitecture in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95(11):504555.
  • 14
    Bacchetta J, Boutroy S, Vilayphiou N, Juillard L, Guebre-Egziabher F, Rognant N, Sornay-Rendu E, Szulc P, Laville M, Delmas PD, Fouque D, Chapurlat R. Early impairment of trabecular microarchitecture assessed with HR-pQCT in patients with stage II-IV chronic kidney disease. J Bone Miner Res. 2010;25(4):84957.
  • 15
    Rubin MR, Dempster DW, Kohler T, Stauber M, Zhou H, Shane E, Nickolas T, Stein E, Sliney J Jr, Silverberg SJ, Bilezikian JP, Muller R. Three dimensional cancellous bone structure in hypoparathyroidism. Bone. 2010;46(1):1905.
  • 16
    Li EK, Zhu TY, Tam LS, Hung VW, Griffith JF, Li TK, Li M, Wong KC, Leung PC, Kwok AW, Qin L. Bone microarchitecture assessment by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus taking corticosteroids. J Rheumatol. 2010;37(7):14739.
  • 17
    Arnett FC, Edworthy SM, Bloch DA, McShane DJ, Fries JF, Cooper NS, Healey LA, Kaplan SR, Liang MH, Luthra HS, Medsger TA Jr, Mitchell DM, Neustadt DH, Pinals RS, Schaller JG, Sharp JT, Wilder RL, Hunder GG. The American Rheumatism Association 1987 revised criteria for the classification of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 1988;31(3):31524.
  • 18
    Lynn HS, Lau EM, Au B, Leung PC. Bone mineral density reference norms for Hong Kong Chinese. Osteoporos Int. 2005;16(12):16638.
  • 19
    Boutroy S, Bouxsein ML, Munoz F, Delmas PD. In vivo assessment of trabecular bone microarchitecture by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90(12):650815.
  • 20
    Hildebrand T, Ruegsegger P. A new method for the model-independent assessment of thickness in three-dimensional images. J Microsc. 1997;185(1):6775.
  • 21
    Hildebrand T, Ruegsegger P. Quantification of bone microarchitecture with the structure model index. Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin. 1997;1(1):1523.
  • 22
    Buie HR, Campbell GM, Klinck RJ, MacNeil JA, Boyd SK. Automatic segmentation of cortical and trabecular compartments based on a dual threshold technique for in vivo micro-CT bone analysis. Bone. 2007;41(4):50515.
  • 23
    Burghardt AJ, Buie HR, Laib A, Majumdar S, Boyd SK. Reproducibility of direct quantitative measures of cortical bone microarchitecture of the distal radius and tibia by HR-pQCT. Bone. 2010;47(3):51928.
  • 24
    Seeman E. Pathogenesis of bone fragility in women and men. Lancet. 2002;359(9320):184150.
  • 25
    van Rietbergen B, Weinans H, Huiskes R, Odgaard A. A new method to determine trabecular bone elastic properties and loading using micromechanical finite-element models. J Biomech. 1995;28(1):6981.
  • 26
    Turner CH, Rho J, Takano Y, Tsui TY, Pharr GM. The elastic properties of trabecular and cortical bone tissues are similar: results from two microscopic measurement techniques. J Biomech. 1999;32(4):43741.
  • 27
    Pistoia W, van Rietbergen B, Lochmuller EM, Lill CA, Eckstein F, Ruegsegger P. Estimation of distal radius failure load with micro-finite element analysis models based on three-dimensional peripheral quantitative computed tomography images. Bone. 2002;30(6):8428.
  • 28
    Romas E, Gillespie MT. Inflammation-induced bone loss: can it be prevented?. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 2006;32(4):75973.
  • 29
    Haugeberg G. Focal and generalized bone loss in rheumatoid arthritis: separate or similar concepts?. Nat Clin Pract Rheumatol. 2008;4(8):4023.
  • 30
    Hooyman JR, Melton LJ 3rd, Nelson AM, O'Fallon WM, Riggs BL. Fractures after rheumatoid arthritis. A population-based study. Arthritis Rheum. 1984;27(12):135361.
  • 31
    Michel BA, Bloch DA, Wolfe F, Fries JF. Fractures in rheumatoid arthritis: an evaluation of associated risk factors. J Rheumatol. 1993;20(10):16669.
  • 32
    Nampei A, Hashimoto J, Koyanagi J, Ono T, Hashimoto H, Tsumaki N, Tomita T, Sugamoto K, Nishimoto N, Ochi T, Yoshikawa H. Characteristics of fracture and related factors in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Mod Rheumatol. 2008;18(2):1706.
  • 33
    Kaz Kaz H, Johnson D, Kerry S, Chinappen U, Tweed K, Patel S. Fall-related risk factors and osteoporosis in women with rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2004;43(10):126771.
  • 34
    Abdulghani S, Caetano-Lopes J, Canhao H, Fonseca JE. Biomechanical effects of inflammatory diseases on bone-rheumatoid arthritis as a paradigm. Autoimmun Rev. 2009;8(8):66871.
  • 35
    Broy SB, Tanner SB. FRAX® Position Development Conference Members. Official Positions for FRAX® Clinical Regarding Rheumatoid Arthritis, Joint Official Positions Development Conference of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry and International Osteoporosis Foundation on FRAX®. J Clin Densitom. 2011;14(3):1849.
  • 36
    Ding M, Odgaard A, Danielsen CC, Hvid I. Mutual associations among microstructural, physical and mechanical properties of human cancellous bone. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2002;84(6):9007.
  • 37
    Szulc P, Seeman E. Thinking inside and outside the envelopes of bone: dedicated to PDD. Osteoporos Int. 2009;20(8):12818.
  • 38
    Martin TJ, Seeman E. Bone remodelling: its local regulation and the emergence of bone fragility. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;22(5):70122.
  • 39
    Parfitt AM. Misconceptions (2): turnover is always higher in cancellous than in cortical bone. Bone. 2002;30(6):8079.
  • 40
    Bjornerem A, Ghasem-Zadeh A, Bui M, Wang X, Rantzau C, Nguyen TV, Hopper JL, Zebaze R, Seeman E. Remodeling markers are associated with larger intracortical surface area but smaller trabecular surface area: a twin study. Bone. 2011;49(6):112530.
  • 41
    Ton FN, Gunawardene SC, Lee H, Neer RM. Effects of low-dose prednisone on bone metabolism. J Bone Miner Res. 2005;20(3):46470.
  • 42
    Haugeberg G, Strand A, Kvien TK, Kirwan JR. Reduced loss of hand bone density with prednisolone in early rheumatoid arthritis: results from a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Arch Intern Med. 2005;165(11):12937.
  • 43
    Ibanez M, Ortiz AM, Castrejon I, Garcia-Vadillo JA, Carvajal I, Castaneda S, Gonzalez-Alvaro I. A rational use of glucocorticoids in patients with early arthritis has a minimal impact on bone mass. Arthritis Res Ther. 2010;12(2):R50.
  • 44
    Griffith JF, Genant HK. Bone mass and architecture determination: state of the art. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;22(5):73764.
  • 45
    Bogoch E, Gschwend N, Bogoch B, Rahn B, Perren S. Changes in the metaphysis and diaphysis of the femur proximal to the knee in rabbits with experimentally induced inflammatory arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 1989;32(5):61724.