Aminobisphosphonates (NBPs) are used widely against excessive bone resorption in osteoporosis and Paget's disease as well as in metastatic bone disease and multiple myeloma. Intravenous NBP administration often causes mild to severe acute-phase responses (APRs) that may require intervention with analgesics and antipyretics and lead to treatment noncompliance and nonadherence. We here undertook a phase IV safety trial in patients with osteoporosis to investigate the APR of otherwise healthy individuals to first-time intravenous treatment with the NBP zoledronate. This study provides unique insight into sterile acute inflammatory responses in vivo, in the absence of confounding factors such as infection or cancer. Our data show that both peripheral γδ T cells and monocytes become rapidly activated after treatment with zoledronate, which ultimately determines the clinical severity of the APR. Our study highlights a key role for IFN-γ in the zoledronate-induced APR and identifies pretreatment levels of monocytes and central/memory Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells as well as their responsiveness to zoledronate in vitro as predictive risk factors for the occurrence of subclinical and clinical symptoms. These findings have diagnostic and prognostic implications for patients with and without malignancy and are relevant for Vγ9/Vδ2 T-cell–based immunotherapy approaches. © 2012 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2013 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.