• 1
    Parfitt AM. Terminology and symbols in bone morphometry. In: Jaworski ZFG, editor Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Bone Morphometry. Ottawa: Ottawa University Press; p. 3315. 1976.
  • 2
    Parfitt AM, Drezner MC, Glorieux FH, Kanis JA, Malluche H, Meunier PJ, Ott SM, Recker RR., Bone histomorphometry: standardization of nomenclature, symbols, and units. Report of the ASBMR Histomorphometry Nomenclature Committee. J Bone Miner Res. 1987; 2: 595610.
  • 3
    Dorland's illustrated medical dictionary. 26th ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders; 1981.
  • 4
    Fawcett DW. A textbook of histology II ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders; 1986.
  • 5
    Malluche HH, Faugere M-C. Atlas of mineralized bone histology. New York: S. Karger AG; 1986.
  • 6
    Revell PA. Pathology of bone. Berlin: Springer-Verlag; 1986.
  • 7
    Cowin SC. Wolff's Law of trabecular architecture at remodeling equilibrium. J Biomech Eng. 1986; 108: 8388.
  • 8
    Arnold JS, Wei LT. Quantitative morphology of vertebral trabecular bone. In: Stover B, Jee WSS, editors Radiobiology of plutonium. Salt Lake City: The J.W. Press; p. 33354. 1972.
  • 9
    Whitehouse WJ., Cancellous bone in the anterior part of the iliac crest. Calc Tiss Res. 1977; 23: 6776.
  • 10
    Singh I. The architecture of cancellous bone. J Anat. 1978; 127: 30510.
  • 11
    Robinson RA. Chemical analysis and electron microscopy of bone. In: Rodahl K, Nicholson JT, Brown EM, editors Bone as a tissue. New York: McGraw-Hill; p. 186250. 1960.
  • 12
    Courpron P, Meunier P, Bressot C, Giroux JM., Amount of bone in iliac crest biopsy. Significance of the trabecular bone volume. In: Meunier PJ, editor Bone histomorphometry. Second international workshop. Paris: Armour Montagu, p. 3953. 1976.
  • 13
    Malluche HH, Sherman DS, Meyer W, Massry SG. A new semiautomatic method for quantitative static and dynamic bone histology. Calcif Tissue Int. 1982; 34: 43948.
  • 14
    Frost HM. Bone remodelling dynamics. Springfield: C. C. Thomas; 1964.
  • 15
    Carter DR, Spengler DM. Mechanical properties and composition of cortical bone. Clin Orthop. 1978; 135: 192217.
  • 16
    Vaughan JM. The physiology of bone 2nd ed. Oxford: The Clarendon Press; 1976.
  • 17
    Dobnig H, Turner RT. Evidence that intermittent treatment with parathyroid hormone increases bone formation in adult rats by activation of bone lining cells. Endocrinology. 1995; 136: 36328.
  • 18
    Dunstan CR, Evans RA. Quantitative bone histology: a new method. Pathology. 1980; 12: 25564.
  • 19
    Chappard D, Alexandre C, Riffat G. Histochemical identification of osteoclasts. Review of current methods and reappraisal of a simple procedure for routine diagnosis on undecalcified iliac bone biopsies. Bas Appl Histochem. 1983; 27: 7583.
  • 20
    Parfitt AM. The stereologic basis of bone histomorphometry. Theory of quantitative microscopy and reconstruction of the third dimension. In: Recker R, editor Bone histomorphometry. Techniques and interpretations. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press; p. 5387. 1983.
  • 21
    Aherne WA, Dunnill MS., Morphometry. London: Edward Arnold; 1982.
  • 22
    Elias H, Hyde DM. A guide to practical stereology. Basel: Karger;. 1983.
  • 23
    Vesterby A, Kragstrup J, Gundersen HJG, Melsen F. Unbiased stereological estimation of surface density in bone using ‘vertical sections’. Bone. 1987; 8: 137.
  • 24
    Whitehouse WJ. The quantitative morphology of anisotropic trabecular bone. J Microsc. 1974; 101: 15368.
  • 25
    Schwartz MP, Recker RR. Comparison of surface density and volume of human iliac trabecular bone measured directly and by applied stereology. Calcif Tissue Int. 1981; 33: 5615.
  • 26
    Baddeley AJ, Gundersen HJG, Cruz-Orive LM. Estimation of surface area from vertical sections. J Microsc. 1986; 142: 25976.
  • 27
    Gundersen HJG. Stereology of arbitrary particles. J Microsc. 1986; 143: 345.
  • 28
    DeHoff RT. Quantitative serial sectioning analysis: preview. J Microsc. 1983; 131: 25963.
  • 29
    Schenk RK. Comments on terminology symbols. In: Jaworski ZFG, editor Proceedings of the First Workshop on Bone Morphometry. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press; p. 336. 1976.
  • 30
    Frost HM. Bone histomorphometry: analysis of trabecular bone dynamics. In: Recker R, editor Bone histomorphometry. Techniques and interpretations. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press; p. 10931. 1983.
  • 31
    Parfitt AM, Rao DS, Stanciu J, Villanueva AR, Kleerekoper M, Frame B. Irreversible bone loss in osteomalacia: comparison of radial photon absorptiometry with iliac bone histomorphometry during treatment. J Clin Invest. 1985; 76: 240312.
  • 32
    Parfitt AM, Simon LS, Villanueva AR, Krane SM. Pro-collagen type 1 carboxy-terminal extension peptide in serum as a marker of collagen biosynthesis in bone. Correlation with iliac bone formation rates and comparison with total alkaline phosphatase. J Bone Min Res. 1987; 2: 42736.
  • 33
    Boyce BF, Courpon P, Meunier PJ. Amount of bone in osteoporosis and physiological senile osteopenia. Comparison of two histomorphometric parameters. Metab Bone Dis Rel Res. 1978; 1: 358.
  • 34
    Horsman A. Bone mass. In: Nordin BEC, editor Calcium, phosphate and magnesium metabolism. Edinburgh: Churchill-Livingstone; 1976.
  • 35
    Euclid. Euclid's Elements, Book I, Proposition 35.
  • 36
    Keshawarz NM, Recker RR. Expansion of the medullary cavity at the expense of cortex in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Metab Bone Dis Rel Res. 1984; 5: 2238.
  • 37
    Hamilton EJ, Ghasem-Zadeh A, Gianatti E, Lim-Joon D, Bolton D, Zebaze R, Seeman E, Zajac JD, Grossmann M. Structural decay of bone microarchitecture in men with prostate cancer treated with androgen deprivation therapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010; 95: E45663.
  • 38
    Zebaze RM, Ghasem-Zadeh A, Bohte A, Iuliano-Burns S, Mirams M, Price RI, Mackie EJ, Seeman E. Intracortical remodelling and porosity in the distal radius and post-mortem femurs of women: a cross-sectional study. Lancet. 2010; 15; (375): 172936.
  • 39
    Compston JE, Vedi S, Stellon AJ. Inter-observer and intra-observer variation in bone histomorphometry. Calcif Tissue Int. 1986; 38: 6770.
  • 40
    Duncan H. Cortical porosis; a morphological evaluation. In: Jaworski ZFG, editor First Workshop on Bone Histomorphometry. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press; p. 78. 1973.
  • 41
    Arnold JS, Bartley MH, Tont SA, Jenkins DP., Skeletal changes in aging and disease. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1966; 49: 1738.
  • 42
    Olah AJ. Effects of microscopic resolution on histomorphometrical estimates of structural and remodeling parameters in cancellous bone. Path Res Pract. 1980; 166: 31322.
  • 43
    Rasmussen H, Bordier PJ. The physiological and cellular basis of metabolic bone disease. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins; 1974.
  • 44
    Martin RB. Porosity and specific surface of bone. CRC Crit Rev Biomed Eng. 1984; 10: 179222.
  • 45
    Eriksen EF. Normal and pathological remodeling of human trabecular bone: three dimensional reconstruction of the remodeling sequence in normals and in metabolic bone disease. Endocr Rev. 1986; 7: 379408.
  • 46
    Parfitt AM. The cellular basis of bone remodeling. The quantum concept re-examined in light of recent advances in cell biology of bone. Calc Tissue Int. 1984; 36: S37S45.
  • 47
    Kragstrup J, Gundersen HJG, Melsen F, Mosekildc L. Estimation of the three-dimensional wall thickness of completed remodeling sites in iliac trabecular bone. Metab Bone Dis Rel Res. 1982; 4: 1139.
  • 48
    Parfitt AM, Villanueva AR, Mathews CHE, Aswani JA. Kinetics of matrix and mineral apposition in osteoporosis and renal osteodystrophy: relationship to rate of turnover and to cell morphology. In: Jee WSS, Parfitt AM, editors Bone histomorphometry. Third International Workshop. Paris: Armour-Montagu; p. 2139. 1981.
  • 49
    Parfitt AM. Osteomalacia related disorders. In: Avioli LV, Krane SM, editors Metabolic bone disease 2nd ed. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders; p. 32996. 1987.
  • 50
    Baylink D, Stauffer M, Wergcdal J, Rich C. Formation, mineralization and resorption of bone in vitamin D deficient rats. J Clin Invest. 1970; 49: 1122.
  • 51
    Teitelbaum S, Hruska KA, Shieber W, Debnam JW, Nichols SH. Tetracycline fluorescence in uremic and primary hyper-parathyroid bone. Kidney Int. 1977; 12: 366.
  • 52
    Courpron P. Bone tissue mechanisms underlying osteoporoses. Orthop Clin North Am. 1981; 12: 5135145.
  • 53
    Broulik P, Kragstrup J, Mosekilde L, Melsen F. Osteon cross-sectional size in the iliac crest. Acta Path Microbiol Immunol Scand Sect A. 1982; 90: 33944.
  • 54
    Merz WA, Schenk RK. Quantitative structural analysis of human cancellous bone. Acta Anat (Basel). 1970; 75: 5466.
  • 55
    Garrahan NJ, Mellish RW, Compston JE. A new method for the two dimensional analysis of bone structure in human iliac crest biopsies. J Microsc. 1986; 142: 3414.
  • 56
    Compston JE, Mellish RWE, Garrahan NJ. Age-related changes in iliac crest trabecular macroanatomic bone structure in man. Bone. 1987; 8: 28992.
  • 57
    Parfitt AM, Mathews CHE, Villanueva AR, Kleerekoper M, Frame B, Rao DS. Relationship between surface, volume and thickness of iliac trabecular bone in aging and in osteoporosis: implications for the microanatomic and cellular mechanisms of bone loss. J Clin Invest. 1983; 72: 1396409.
  • 58
    Malluche HH, Meyer W, Sherman D, Massry SG. Quantitative bone histology in 84 normal American subjects. Calcif Tissue Int. 1982; 34: 44955.
  • 59
    Boyce RW, Ebert DC, Youngs TA, Paddock CL, Mosekilde L, Stevens ML, Gundersen HJ. Unbiased estimation of vertebral trabecular connectivity in calcium-restricted ovariectomized minipigs. Bone. 1995; 16: 63742.
  • 60
    Weinstein RS, Hutson MS. Decreased trabecular width and increased trabecular spacing contribute to bone loss with aging. Bone. 1987; 8: 13742.
  • 61
    Aaron JE, Makins NB, Francis RM, Peacock M. Staining of the calcification front in human bone using contrasting fluoro-chromes in vitro. J Histochem Cytochem. 1984; 32: 125161.
  • 62
    Parfitt AM, Foldes J, Villanueva AR, Shish MS. Difference in label length between demethylchlortetracycline and oxytetracycline: implications for the interpretation of bone histomorphometric data. Calcif Tissue Int. 1991; 48: 747.
  • 63
    Lindsay R, Cosman F, Zhou H, Bostrom MP, Shen VW, Cruz JD, Nieves JW, Dempster DW. A novel tetracycline labeling schedule for longitudinal evaluation of the short-term effects of anabolic therapy with a single iliac crest bone biopsy: early actions of teriparatide. J Bone Miner Res. 2006; 21: 36673.
  • 64
    Lindsay R, Cosman F, Zhou H, Nieves J, Dempster DW. Letter to the editor: double and quadruple tetracycline labeling of bone. J Bone Miner Res. (in press).
  • 65
    Tarn CS, Anderson W. Tetracycline labelling of bone in vivo. Calcif Tissue Int. 1980; 30: 1215.
  • 66
    Parfitt AM. The physiologic and clinical significance of bone histomorphometric data. In: Recker R, editor Bone histomorphometry. Techniques and interpretations. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press; p. 143223. 1983.
  • 67
    Melsen F, Mosekilde L., Dynamic studies of trabecular bone formation and osteoid maturation in normal and certain pathological conditions. Metab Bone Dis Rel Res. 1978; 1: 458.
  • 68
    Frost HM. Tetracycline-based histological analysis of bone remodeling. Editorial. Calc Tiss Res. 1969; 3: 21137.
  • 69
    Jaworski ZFG. Bone histomorphometry: outline of theory and practice. In: Simmons OJ, Kunin AS, editors Skeletal research. Vol 2. New York: Academic Press; p. 23776. 1983.
  • 70
    Parfitt AM, Mathews C, Rao D, Frame B, Kleerekoper M, Villanueva AR., Impaired osteoblast function in metabolic bone disease. In: DeLuca HF, Frost H, Jee W, Johnston C, Parfitt AM, editors Osteoporosis: recent advances in pathogenesis and treatment. Baltimore: University Park Press; p. 3210. 1981.
  • 71
    Parfitt AM, Villanueva AR. Hypophosphatemia and osteoblast function in human bone disease. In: Massry SG, Letteri JM, Ritz E, editors Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop in Phosphate and Other Minerals. Regulation of phosphate and mineral metabolism. Adv Exp Med Biol 151: 20916. 1982.
  • 72
    Wu K, Jett S, Frost HM. Bone resorption rates in rib in physiological, senile, and postmenopausal osteoporoses. J Lab Clin Med. 1967; 69: 8108.
  • 73
    Gruber HE, Ivey JL, Thompson ER, Chestnut CH III, Baylink DJ. Osteoblast and osteoclast cell number and cell activity in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Miner Electrolyte Metab. 1986; 12: 24654.
  • 74
    Evans RA, Flynn J, Dunstan CR, George CRP, McDonnell GD. Bone metabolism in chronic renal failure. Miner Electrolyte Metab. 1982; 7: 20718.
  • 75
    Roschger P, Paschalis EP, Fratzl P, Klaushofer K. Bone mineralization density distribution in health and disease. Bone. 2008; 42: 45666.
  • 76
    Boivin G, Farlay D, Bala Y, Doublier A, Meunier PJ, Delmas PD. Influence of remodeling on the mineralization of bone tissue. Osteoporos Int. 2009; 20: 10236.
  • 77
    Paschalis EP, Mendelsohn R, Boskey AL. Infrared assessment of bone quality: a review. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2011; 469: 21708.
  • 78
    Frost HM. Bone histomorphometry: correction of the labeling “escape error.” In: Recker RR, editor Bone histomorphometry. Techniques and interpretations. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press; p. 13342. 1983.
  • 79
    Arlot M, Edouard C, Meunier PJ, Neer RM, Reeve J. Impaired osteoblast function in osteoporosis: comparison between calcium balance dynamic histomorphometry. Br Med J. 1984; 289: 51720.
  • 80
    Jones SJ, Boyde A, Ali NN, Maconnachie E. A review of bone cell and substratum interactions. An illustration of the role of scanning electron microscopy. Scanning. 1985; 7: 524.
  • 81
    Recker RR, Kimmel DB, Dempster D, Weinstein RS, Wronski TJ, Burr DB. Issues in modern bone histomorphometry. Bone. 2011; 49: 95564.
  • 82
    Foldes J, Shih MS, Parfitt AM. Frequency distributions of tetracycline-based measurements: implications for the interpretation of bone formation indices in the absence of double-labeled surfaces. J Bone Miner Res. 1990; 5: 10637.
  • 83
    Hauge E, Mosekilde L, Melsen F. Missing observations in bone histomorphometry on osteoporosis: implications and suggestions for an approach. Bone. 1999; 25: 38995.
  • 84
    Reid IR, Miller PD, Brown JP, Kendler DL, Fahrleitner-Pammer A, Valter I, Maasalu K, Bolognese MA, Woodson G, Bone H, Ding B, Wagman RB, San Martin J, Ominsky MS, Dempster DW. Denosumab Phase 3 Bone Histology Study Group. Effects of denosumab on bone histomorphometry: the FREEDOM and STAND studies. J Bone Miner Res. 2010; 25: 225665.
  • 85
    Dempster DW, Zhou H, Recker RR, Brown JP, Bolognese MA, Recknor CP, Kendler DL, Lewiecki EM, Hanley DA, Rao DS, Miller PD. Woodson GC 3rd, Lindsay R, Binkley N, Wan X, Ruff VA, Janos B, Taylor KA. Skeletal Histomorphometry in Subjects on Teriparatide or Zoledronic Acid Therapy (SHOTZ) study: a randomized controlled trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012; 97: 2799808.
  • 86
    Recker RR, Delmas PD, Halse J, Reid IR, Boonen S, García-Hernandez PA, Supronik J, Lewiecki EM, Ochoa L, Miller P, Hu H, Mesenbrink P, Hartl F, Gasser J, Eriksen EF. Effects of intravenous zoledronic acid once yearly on bone remodeling and bone structure. J Bone Miner Res. 2008; 23: 616.
  • 87
    Compston JE. Histomorphometric interpretation of bone biopsies for the evaluation of osteoporosis treatment. BoneKEy Rep [Internet]. 2012 Apr 4;1; DOI: 10.1038/bonekey.2012.4772.
  • 88
    Riggs DS. The mathematical approach to physiologic problems. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins; 1963.
  • 89
    Young DS. Implementation of SI units for clinical laboratory data. Style specifications and conversion tables. Ann Intern Med. 1987; 10: 11429.
  • 90
    Faugere MC, Malluche HH. Comparison of different bone-biopsy techniques for qualitative and quantitative diagnosis of metabolic bone diseases. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1983; 65: 13148.