• 1
    Johnell O, Kanis JA. An estimate of the worldwide prevalence and disability associated with osteoporotic fractures. Osteoporos Int. 2006;17(12):172633.
  • 2
    Gullberg B, Johnell O, Kanis JA. World-wide projections for hip fracture. Osteoporos Int. 1997;7(5):40713.
  • 3
    McKay HA, Bailey DA, Mirwald RL, Davison KS, Faulkner RA. Peak bone mineral accrual and age at menarche in adolescent girls: a 6-year longitudinal study. J Pediatr. 1998;133(5):6827.
  • 4
    Heinonen A, Kannus P, Sievanen H, Oja P, Pasanen M, Rinne M, Uusi-Rasi K, Vuori I. Randomised controlled trial of effect of high-impact exercise on selected risk factors for osteoporotic fractures. Lancet. 1996;348(9038):13437.
  • 5
    Province MA, Hadley EC, Hornbrook MC, Lipsitz LA, Miller JP, Mulrow CD, Ory MG, Sattin RW, Tinetti ME, Wolf SL. The effects of exercise on falls in elderly patients. A preplanned meta-analysis of the FICSIT Trials. Frailty Injuries: Cooperative Studies of Intervention Techniques. JAMA. 1995;273(17):13417.
  • 6
    Karinkanta S, Piirtola M, Sievanen H, Uusi-Rasi K, Kannus P. Physical therapy approaches to reduce fall and fracture risk among older adults. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2010;6(7):396407.
  • 7
    Kujala UM, Kaprio J, Kannus P, Sarna S, Koskenvuo M. Physical activity and osteoporotic hip fracture risk in men. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160(5):7058.
  • 8
    Mussolino ME, Looker AC, Madans JH, Langlois JA, Orwoll ES. Risk factors for hip fracture in white men: the NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study. J Bone Miner Res. 1998;13(6):91824.
  • 9
    Michaelsson K, Olofsson H, Jensevik K, Larsson S, Mallmin H, Berglund L, Vessby B, Melhus H. Leisure physical activity and the risk of fracture in men. PLoS Med. 2007;4(6):e199.
  • 10
    Fogelholm M, Malmberg J, Suni J, Santtila M, Kyrolainen H, Mantysaari M, Oja P. International physical activity questionnaire: validity against fitness. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006;38(4):75360.
  • 11
    Kurtze N, Rangul V, Hustvedt BE. Reliability and validity of the international physical activity questionnaire in the Nord-Trondelag health study (HUNT) population of men. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2008;8:63.
  • 12
    Kontulainen S, Kannus P, Haapasalo H, Sievanen H, Pasanen M, Heinonen A, Oja P, Vuori I. Good maintenance of exercise-induced bone gain with decreased training of female tennis and squash players: a prospective 5-year follow-up study of young and old starters and controls. J Bone Miner Res. 2001;16(2):195201.
  • 13
    Valdimarsson O, Alborg HG, Duppe H, Nyquist F, Karlsson M. Reduced training is associated with increased loss of BMD. J Bone Miner Res. 2005;20(6):90612.
  • 14
    Tervo T, Nordstrom P, Neovius M, Nordstrom A. Constant adaptation of bone to current physical activity level in men: a 12-year longitudinal study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93(12):48739.
  • 15
    Nordstrom A, Karlsson C, Nyquist F, Olsson T, Nordstrom P, Karlsson M. Bone loss and fracture risk after reduced physical activity. J Bone Miner Res. 2005;20(2):2027.
  • 16
    Karlsson MK, Linden C, Karlsson C, Johnell O, Obrant K, Seeman E. Exercise during growth and bone mineral density and fractures in old age. Lancet. 2000;355(9202):46970.
  • 17
    Andreasson S, Allebeck P, Romelsjo A. Alcohol and mortality among young men: longitudinal study of Swedish conscripts. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1988;296(6628):10215.
  • 18
    Andersen LB. A maximal exercise cycle protocol to predict maximal oxygen uptake. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 1995;5(3):1436.
  • 19
    Naessen T, Parker R, Persson I, Zack M, Adami HO. Time trends in incidence rates of first hip fracture in the Uppsala Health Care Region, Sweden, 1965–1983. Am J Epidemiol. 1989;130(2):28999.
  • 20
    Michaelsson K, Baron JA, Farahmand BY, Johnell O, Magnusson C, Persson PG, Persson I, Ljunghall S. Hormone replacement therapy risk of hip fracture: population based case-control study. The Swedish Hip Fracture Study Group. BMJ. 1998;316(7148):185863.
  • 21
    Lichtenstein P, De Faire U, Floderus B, Svartengren M, Svedberg P, Pedersen NL. The Swedish Twin Registry: a unique resource for clinical, epidemiological and genetic studies. J Intern Med. 2002;252(3):184205.
  • 22
    Posthuma D, Beem AL, de Geus EJ, van Baal GC, von Hjelmborg JB, Iachine I, Boomsma DI. Theory and practice in quantitative genetics. Twin Res. 2003;6(5):36176.
  • 23
    Rijsdijk FV, Sham PC. Analytic approaches to twin data using structural equation models. Brief Bioinform. 2002;3(2):11933.
  • 24
    Boker S, Neale M, Maes H, Wilde M, Spiegel M, Brick T, Spies J, Estabrook R, Kenny S, Bates T, Mehta P, Fox J. OpenMx: an open source extended structural equation modeling framework. Psychometrika. 2011;76(2):30617.
  • 25
    Branch JD, Pate RR, Bourque SP. Moderate intensity exercise training improves cardiorespiratory fitness in women. J Womens Health Gend Based Med. 2000;9(1):6573.
  • 26
    Gossard D, Haskell WL, Taylor CB, Mueller JK, Rogers F, Chandler M, Ahn DK, Miller NH, DeBusk RF. Effects of low- and high-intensity home-based exercise training on functional capacity in healthy middle-aged men. Am J Cardiol. 1986;57(6):4469.
  • 27
    Kraemer WJ. Strength training basics: designing workouts to meet patients' goals. Phys Sportsmed. 2003;31(8):3945.
  • 28
    Roig M, O'Brien K, Kirk G, Murray R, McKinnon P, Shadgan B, Reid WD. The effects of eccentric versus concentric resistance training on muscle strength and mass in healthy adults: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Br J Sports Med. 2009;43(8):55668.
  • 29
    Ronnestad BR, Egeland W, Kvamme NH, Refsnes PE, Kadi F, Raastad T. Dissimilar effects of one- and three-set strength training on strength and muscle mass gains in upper and lower body in untrained subjects. J Strength Cond Res. 2007;21(1):15763.
  • 30
    Twisk JW, Kemper HC, van Mechelen W, Post GB. Tracking of risk factors for coronary heart disease over a 14-year period: a comparison between lifestyle and biologic risk factors with data from the Amsterdam Growth and Health Study. Am J Epidemiol. 1997;145(10):88898.
  • 31
    Telama R, Leskinen E, Yang X. Stability of habitual physical activity and sport participation: a longitudinal tracking study. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 1996;6(6):3718.
  • 32
    Nordström P, Lorentzon R. Influence of heredity and environment on bone density in adolescent boys: a parent-offspring study. Osteoporos Int. 1999;10(4):2717.