• 1
    Humes KR, Jones NA, Ramirez RR. Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2010 2010 Census Briefs. 2011.
  • 2
    Barrett-Connor E, Siris ES, Wehren LE, Miller PD, Abbott TA, Berger ML, Santora AC, Sherwood LM. Osteoporosis and fracture risk in women of different ethnic groups. J Bone Miner Res. 2005; 20(2):18594.
  • 3
    Walker MD, Babbar R, Opotowsky AR, Rohira A, Nabizadeh F, Badia MD, Chung W, Chiang J, Mediratta A, McMahon D, Liu G, Bilezikian JP. A referent bone mineral density database for Chinese American women. Osteoporos Int. 2006; 17(6):87887.
  • 4
    Woo J, Li M, Lau E. Population bone mineral density measurements for Chinese women and men in Hong Kong. Osteoporos Int. 2001; 12(4):28995.
  • 5
    Xiaoge D, Eryuan L, Xianping W, Zhiguang Z, Gan H, Zaijing J, Xiaoli P, Hongzhuan T, Hanwen W. Bone mineral density differences at the femoral neck and Ward's triangle: a comparison study on the reference data between Chinese and Caucasian women. Calcif Tissue Int. 2000; 67(3):1958.
  • 6
    Russell-Aulet M, Wang J, Thornton JC, Colt EW, Pierson RN Jr. Bone mineral density and mass in a cross-sectional study of white and Asian women. J Bone Miner Res. 1993; 8(5):57582.
  • 7
    Lauderdale DS, Jacobsen SJ, Furner SE, Levy PS, Brody JA, Goldberg J. Hip fracture incidence among elderly Asian-American populations. Am J Epidemiol. 1997; 146(6):5029.
  • 8
    Xu L, Lu A, Zhao X, Chen X, Cummings SR. Very low rates of hip fracture in Beijing, People's Republic of China the Beijing Osteoporosis Project. Am J Epidemiol. 1996; 144(9):9017.
  • 9
    Walker MD, McMahon DJ, Udesky J, Liu G, Bilezikian JP. Application of high-resolution skeletal imaging to measurements of volumetric BMD and skeletal microarchitecture in Chinese-American and white women: explanation of a paradox. J Bone Miner Res. 2009; 24(12):19539.
  • 10
    Walker MD, Liu XS, Stein E, Zhou B, Bezati E, McMahon DJ, Udesky J, Liu G, Shane E, Guo XE, Bilezikian JP. Differences in bone microarchitecture between postmenopausal Chinese-American and white women. J Bone Miner Res. 2011.
  • 11
    Wang XF, Wang Q, Ghasem-Zadeh A, Evans A, McLeod C, Iuliano-Burns S, Seeman E. Differences in macro- and microarchitecture of the appendicular skeleton in young Chinese and white women. J Bone Miner Res. 2009; 24(12):194652.
  • 12
    Liu XS, Sajda P, Saha PK, Wehrli FW, Guo XE. Quantification of the roles of trabecular microarchitecture and trabecular type in determining the elastic modulus of human trabecular bone. J Bone Miner Res. 2006; 21(10):160817.
  • 13
    Liu XS, Sajda P, Saha PK, Wehrli FW, Bevill G, Keaveny TM, Guo XE. Complete volumetric decomposition of individual trabecular plates and rods and its morphological correlations with anisotropic elastic moduli in human trabecular bone. J Bone Miner Res. 2008; 23(2):22335. [dup of Ref. 29; change Ref. 29 citations to Ref. 13].
  • 14
    Liu XS, Walker MD, McMahon DJ, Udesky J, Liu G, Bilezikian JP, Guo XE. Better skeletal microstructure confers greater mechanical advantages in Chinese-American women versus white women. J Bone Miner Res. 2011; 26(8):178392.
  • 15
    Hertzler A, Frary R. A dietary rapid assessment method (RAM). Top Clin Nutr. 1994; 9:7685.
  • 16
    Boutroy S, Bouxsein ML, Munoz F, Delmas PD. In vivo assessment of trabecular bone microarchitecture by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005; 90(12):650815.
  • 17
    Boutroy S, van Rietbergen B, Sornay-Rendu E, Munoz F, Bouxsein ML, Delmas PD. Finite Element Analyses Based on In Vivo HR-pQCT Images of the Distal Radius is Associated with Wrist Fracture in Postmenopausal Women. J Bone Miner Res. 2008; 23(3):3929. [change Ref. 19 citations to Ref. 17].
  • 18
    Sornay-Rendu E, Boutroy S, Munoz F, Delmas PD. Alterations of cortical and trabecular architecture are associated with fractures in postmenopausal women, partially independent of decreased BMD measured by DXA: the OFELY study. J Bone Miner Res. 2007; 22(3):42533.
  • 19
    Cohen A, Liu XS, Stein EM, McMahon DJ, Rogers HF, Lemaster J, Recker RR, Lappe JM, Guo XE, Shane E. Bone microarchitecture and stiffness in premenopausal women with idiopathic osteoporosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009; 94(11):435160.
  • 20
    Stein EM, Liu XS, Nickolas TL, Cohen A, Thomas V, McMahon DJ, Zhang C, Yin PT, Cosman F, Nieves J, Guo XE, Shane E. Abnormal microarchitecture and reduced stiffness at the radius and tibia in postmenopausal women with fractures. J Bone Miner Res. J Bone Miner Res. 25(12):2296305. [change Ref. 23 citations to Ref. 21].
  • 21
    Liu XS, Zhang XH, Sekhon KK, Adams MF, McMahon DJ, Bilezikian JP, Shane E, Guo XE. High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography can assess microstructural and mechanical properties of human distal tibial bone. J Bone Miner Res. 2010; 25(4):74656.
  • 22
    Sode M, Burghardt AJ, Kazakia GJ, Link TM, Majumdar S. Regional variations of gender-specific and age-related differences in trabecular bone structure of the distal radius and tibia. Bone. 2010; 46(6):165260.
  • 23
    Saha PK, Chaudhuri BB, Majumder DD. A new shape preserving parallel thinning algorithm for 3D digital images. Pattern Recogn. 1997; 30(12):193955.
  • 24
    Saha PK, Chaudhuri BB. Detection of 3-D simple points for topology preserving. IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell. 1994; 16(10):102832.
  • 25
    Saha PK, Chaudhuri BB, Chanda B, Dutta Majumder D. Topology preservation in 3D digital space. Pattern Recogn. 1994; 27:295300.
  • 26
    Saha PK, Chaudhuri BB. 3D digital topology under binary transformation with applications. Comput Vis Image Underst. 1996; 63(3):41829.
  • 27
    Guo XE, Goldstein SA. Is trabecular bone tissue different from cortical bone tissue?. Forma. 1997; 12:18596.
  • 28
    Macneil JA, Boyd SK. Bone strength at the distal radius can be estimated from high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography and the finite element method. Bone. 2008; 42(6):120313.
  • 29
    Melton LJ 3rd, Christen D, Riggs BL, Achenbach SJ, Muller R, van Lenthe GH, Amin S, Atkinson EJ, Khosla S. Assessing forearm fracture risk in postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int. 2010; 21(7):11619.
  • 30
    Vilayphiou N, Boutroy S, Sornay-Rendu E, Van Rietbergen B, Munoz F, Delmas PD, Chapurlat R. Finite element analysis performed on radius and tibia HR-pQCT images and fragility fractures at all sites in postmenopausal women. Bone. 2010; 46(4):10307.
  • 31
    Liu XS, Stein EM, Zhou B, Zhang CA, Nickolas TL, Cohen A, Thomas V, McMahon DJ, Cosman F, Nieves J, Shane E, Guo XE. Individual trabecula segmentation (ITS)-based morphological analyses and microfinite element analysis of HR-pQCT images discriminate postmenopausal fragility fractures independent of DXA measurements. J Bone Miner Res. 2012; 27(2):26372.
  • 32
    Liu XS, Cohen A, Shane E, Yin PT, Stein EM, Rogers H, Kokolus SL, McMahon DJ, Lappe JM, Recker RR, Lang T, Guo XE. Bone density, geometry, microstructure, and stiffness: Relationships between peripheral and central skeletal sites assessed by DXA, HR-pQCT, and cQCT in premenopausal women. J Bone Miner Res. 2010; 25(10):222938.
  • 33
    Duan Y, Wang XF, Evans A, Seeman E. Structural and biomechanical basis of racial and sex differences in vertebral fragility in Chinese and Caucasians. Bone. 2005.
  • 34
    Hou YL, Wu XP, Luo XH, Zhang H, Cao XZ, Jiang YB, Liao EY. Differences in age-related bone mass of proximal femur between Chinese women and different ethnic women in the United States. J Bone Miner Metab. 2007; 25(4):24352.
  • 35
    Finkelstein JS, Brockwell SE, Mehta V, Greendale GA, Sowers MR, Ettinger B, Lo JC, Johnston JM, Cauley JA, Danielson ME, Neer RM. Bone mineral density changes during the menopause transition in a multiethnic cohort of women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008; 93(3):8618.
  • 36
    Yin MT, Zhang CA, McMahon DJ, Ferris DC, Irani D, Colon I, Cremers S, Shane E. Higher rates of bone loss in postmenopausal HIV-infected women: a longitudinal study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012; 97(2):55462.
  • 37
    Sheu Y, Cauley JA, Wheeler VW, Patrick AL, Bunker CH, Ensrud KE, Orwoll ES, Zmuda JM. Age-related decline in bone density among ethnically diverse older men. Osteoporos Int. 2011; 22(2):599605.
  • 38
    Finkelstein JS, Sowers M, Greendale GA, Lee ML, Neer RM, Cauley JA, Ettinger B. Ethnic variation in bone turnover in pre- and early perimenopausal women: effects of anthropometric and lifestyle factors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002; 87(7):30516.
  • 39
    Baglietto L, English DR, Hopper JL, MacInnis RJ, Morris HA, Tilley WD, Krishnan K, Giles GG. Circulating steroid hormone concentrations in postmenopausal women in relation to body size and composition. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2009; 115(1):1719.
  • 40
    Boyapati SM, Shu XO, Gao YT, Dai Q, Yu H, Cheng JR, Jin F, Zheng W. Correlation of blood sex steroid hormones with body size, body fat distribution, and other known risk factors for breast cancer in post-menopausal Chinese women. Cancer Causes Control. 2004; 15(3):30511.
  • 41
    Mahabir S, Baer DJ, Johnson LL, Hartman TJ, Dorgan JF, Campbell WS, Clevidence BA, Taylor PR. Usefulness of body mass index as a sufficient adiposity measurement for sex hormone concentration associations in postmenopausal women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006; 15(12):25027.