• 1
    Andreassen H, Vestbo J. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as a systemic disease: an epidemiological perspective. Eur Respir J. 2003 Nov; 46(Suppl):2s4s.
  • 2
    Fabbri LM, Luppi F, Beghe B, Rabe KF. Complex chronic comorbidities of COPD. Eur Respir J. 2008 Jan; 31(1):20412.
  • 3
    Barnes PJ, Celli BR. Systemic manifestations and comorbidities of COPD. Eur Respir J. 2009 May; 33(5):116585.
  • 4
    Chatila WM, Thomashow BM, Minai OA, Criner GJ, Make BJ. Comorbidities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2008 May; 5(4):54955.
  • 5
    Wouters EF, Creutzberg EC, Schols AM. Systemic effects in COPD. Chest. 2002 May; 121(5 Suppl):127S30S.
  • 6
    WHO. Scientific Group on the Prevention and Management of Osteoporosis Prevention and management of osteoporosis; report of a WHO scientific group. Geneva: WHO; 2003.
  • 7
    Duckers JM, Evans BA, Fraser WD, Stone MD, Bolton CE, Shale DJ. Low bone mineral density in men with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Respir Res. 2011 Aug; 12(1):101.
  • 8
    Graat-Verboom L, Wouters EF, Smeenk FW, van den Borne BE, Lunde R, Spruit MA. Current status of research on osteoporosis in COPD: a systematic review. Eur Respir J. 2009 Jul; 34(1):20918.
  • 9
    Loke YK, Cavallazzi R, Singh S. Risk of fractures with inhaled corticosteroids in COPD: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials and observational studies. Thorax. 2011 Aug; 66(8):699708.
  • 10
    Kjensli A, Mowinckel P, Ryg MS, Falch JA. Low bone mineral density is related to severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Bone. 2007 Feb; 40(2):4937.
  • 11
    Lehouck A, Boonen S, Decramer M, Janssens W. COPD, bone metabolism, and osteoporosis. Chest. 2011 Mar; 139(3):64857.
  • 12
    Bon J, Fuhrman CR, Weissfeld JL, Duncan SR, Branch RA, Chang CC, Zhang Y, Leader JK, Gur D, Greenspan SL, Sciurba FC. Radiographic emphysema predicts low bone mineral density in a tobacco-exposed cohort. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011 Apr; 183(7):88590.
  • 13
    Ohara T, Hirai T, Muro S, Haruna A, Terada K, Kinose D, Marumo S, Ogawa E, Hoshino Y, Niimi A, Chin K, Mishima M. Relationship between pulmonary emphysema and osteoporosis assessed by CT in patients with COPD. Chest. 2008 Dec; 134(6):12449.
  • 14
    Bai P, Sun Y, Jin J, Hou J, Li R, Zhang Q, Wang Y. Disturbance of the OPG/RANK/RANKL pathway and systemic inflammation in COPD patients with emphysema and osteoporosis. Respir Res. 2011; 12:157.
  • 15
    London GM. Soft bone—hard arteries: a link?. Kidney Blood Press Res. 2011; 34(4):203208.
  • 16
    Feary JR, Rodrigues LC, Smith CJ, Hubbard RB, Gibson JE. Prevalence of major comorbidities in subjects with COPD and incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke: a comprehensive analysis using data from primary care. Thorax. 2010 Nov; 65(11):95662.
  • 17
    Sabit R, Bolton CE, Edwards PH, Pettit RJ, Evans WD, McEniery CM, Wilkinson IB, Cockcroft JR, Shale DJ. Arterial stiffness and osteoporosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2007 Jun; 175(12):125965.
  • 18
    Decramer M, Rennard S, Troosters T, Mapel DW, Giardino N, Mannino D, Wouters E, Sethi S, Cooper CB. COPD as a lung disease with systemic consequences—clinical impact, mechanisms, and potential for early intervention. COPD. 2008 Aug; 5(4):23556.
  • 19
    Sinden NJ, Stockley RA. Systemic inflammation and comorbidity in COPD: a result of ‘overspill’ of inflammatory mediators from the lungs?. Review of the evidence. Thorax. 2010 Oct; 65(10):9306.
  • 20
    Romme EA, Rutten EP, Smeenk FW, Spruit MA, Menheere PP, Wouters EF. Vitamin D status is associated with bone mineral density and functional exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Ann Med. 2013 Feb;45(1)916.
  • 21
    Vestbo J, Anderson W, Coxson HO, Crim C, Dawber F, Edwards L, Hagan G, Knobil K, Lomas DA, MacNee W, Silverman EK, Tal-Singer R. Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate End-points (ECLIPSE). Eur Respir J. 2008 Apr; 31(4):86973.
  • 22
    Romme EA, Murchison JT, Phang KF, Jansen FH, Rutten EP, Wouters EF, Smeenk FW, Van Beek EJ, MacNee W. Bone attenuation on routine chest CT correlates with bone mineral density on DXA in patients with COPD. J Bone Miner Res. 2012 Nov; 27(11):233843.
  • 23
    ATS statement: guidelines for the six-minute walk test. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002 Jul; 166(1):1117.
  • 24
    Gietema HA, Muller NL, Fauerbach PV, Sharma S, Edwards LD, Camp PG, Coxson HO. Quantifying the extent of emphysema: factors associated with radiologists' estimations and quantitative indices of emphysema severity using the ECLIPSE cohort. Acad Radiol. 2011 Jun; 18(6):66171.
  • 25
    Agatston AS, Janowitz WR, Hildner FJ, Zusmer NR, Viamonte M Jr, Detrano R. Quantification of coronary artery calcium using ultrafast computed tomography. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1990 Mar; 15(4):82732.
  • 26
    McClelland RL, Chung H, Detrano R, Post W, Kronmal RA. Distribution of coronary artery calcium by race, gender, and age: results from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Circulation. 2006 Jan; 113(1):307.
  • 27
    Vestbo J, Edwards LD, Scanlon PD, Yates JC, Agusti A, Bakke P, Calverley PM, Celli B, Coxson HO, Crim C, Lomas DA, MacNee W, Miller BE, Silverman EK, Tal-Singer R, Wouters E, Rennard SI. Changes in forced expiratory volume in 1 second over time in COPD. N Engl J Med. 2011 Sep; 365(13):118492.
  • 28
    Agusti A, Edwards LD, Rennard SI, MacNee W, Tal-Singer R, Miller BE, Vestbo J, Lomas DA, Calverley PM, Wouters E, Crim C, Yates JC, Silverman EK, Coxson HO, Bakke P, Mayer RJ, Celli B. Persistent systemic inflammation is associated with poor clinical outcomes in COPD: a novel phenotype. PLoS One. 2012; 7(5):e37483.
  • 29
    Graat-Verboom L, Spruit MA, van den Borne BE, Smeenk FW, Martens EJ, Lunde R, Wouters EF. Correlates of osteoporosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: an underestimated systemic component. Respir Med. 2009 Aug; 103(8):114351.
  • 30
    Bolton CE, Ionescu AA, Shiels KM, Pettit RJ, Edwards PH, Stone MD, Nixon LS, Evans WD, Griffiths TL, Shale DJ. Associated loss of fat-free mass and bone mineral density in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2004 Dec; 170(12):128693.
  • 31
    Bon J. Does radiographic emphysema correlate with low bone mineral density?. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2012 Mar; 18(2):12530.
  • 32
    Kneidinger N, Yildirim AO, Callegari J, Takenaka S, Stein MM, Dumitrascu R, Bohla A, Bracke KR, Morty RE, Brusselle GG, Schermuly RT, Eickelberg O, Konigshoff M. Activation of the WNT/beta-catenin pathway attenuates experimental emphysema. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011 Mar; 183(6):72333.
  • 33
    Hardy R, Cooper MS. Bone loss in inflammatory disorders. J Endocrinol. 2009 Jun; 201(3):30920.
  • 34
    Kanis JA, Johnell O, Oden A, Johansson H, McCloskey E. FRAX and the assessment of fracture probability in men and women from the UK. Osteoporos Int. 2008 Apr; 19(4):38597.
  • 35
    Syed FA, Ng AC. The pathophysiology of the aging skeleton. Curr Osteoporos Rep. 2010 Dec; 8(4):23540.
  • 36
    Bolton CE, Cannings-John R, Edwards PH, Ionescu AA, Evans WD, Pettit RJ, Faulkner TA, Stone MD, Shale DJ. What community measurements can be used to predict bone disease in patients with COPD?. Respir Med. 2008 May; 102(5):6517.
  • 37
    Reid IR. Fat and bone. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2010 Nov; 503(1):207.
  • 38
    Schulz E, Arfai K, Liu X, Sayre J, Gilsanz V. Aortic calcification and the risk of osteoporosis and fractures. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Sep; 89(9):424653.
  • 39
    Tanko LB, Christiansen C, Cox DA, Geiger MJ, McNabb MA, Cummings SR. Relationship between osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women. J Bone Miner Res. 2005 Nov; 20(11):191220.
  • 40
    Toussaint ND, Lau KK, Strauss BJ, Polkinghorne KR, Kerr PG. Associations between vascular calcification, arterial stiffness and bone mineral density in chronic kidney disease. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2008 Feb; 23(2):58693.
  • 41
    Vega D, Maalouf NM, Sakhaee K. CLINICAL Review #: the role of receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB (RANK)/RANK ligand/osteoprotegerin: clinical implications. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Dec; 92(12):451421.
  • 42
    Breyer MK, Spruit MA, Celis AP, Rutten EP, Janssen PP, Wouters EF. Highly elevated C-reactive protein levels in obese patients with COPD: a fat chance?. Clin Nutr. 2009 Dec; 28(6):6427.
  • 43
    Silva DR, Coelho AC, Dumke A, Valentini JD, de Nunes JN, Stefani CL, da Silva Mendes LF, Knorst MM. Osteoporosis prevalence and associated factors in patients with COPD: a cross-sectional study. Respir Care. 2011 Jul; 56(7):9618.
  • 44
    Nishimura Y, Nakata H, Tsutsumi M, Maeda H, Yokoyama M. Relationship between changes of bone mineral content and twelve-minute walking distance in men with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a longitudinal study. Intern Med. 1997 Jul; 36(7):4503.
  • 45
    Lau RY, Guo X. A review on current osteoporosis research: with special focus on disuse bone loss. J Osteoporos. 2011; 2011:293808.
  • 46
    Howe TE, Shea B, Dawson LJ, Downie F, Murray A, Ross C, Harbour RT, Caldwell LM, Creed G. Exercise for preventing and treating osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011; (7):CD000333.
  • 47
    Mussolino ME, Madans JH, Gillum RF. Bone mineral density and mortality in women and men: the NHANES I epidemiologic follow-up study. Ann Epidemiol. 2003 Nov; 13(10):6927.
  • 48
    Nguyen ND, Center JR, Eisman JA, Nguyen TV. Bone loss, weight loss, and weight fluctuation predict mortality risk in elderly men and women. J Bone Miner Res. 2007 Aug; 22(8):114754.
  • 49
    Graat-Verboom L, van den Borne BE, Smeenk FW, Spruit MA, Wouters EF. Osteoporosis in COPD outpatients based on bone mineral density and vertebral fractures. J Bone Miner Res. 2011 Mar; 26(3):5618.