Gene expression patterns in bone following mechanical loading

Authors

  • Sara M Mantila Roosa,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA
    • Center for Translational Musculoskeletal Research, Indiana University, 1140 W. Michigan St., CF-326, Indianapolis, IN 46202.
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Yunlong Liu,

    1. Division of Biostatistics, Department of Medicine, Center for Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Charles H Turner

    1. Department of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA
    2. Department Orthopaedic Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA
    3. Department of Biomedical Engineering, Indiana University/Purdue University, Indianapolis, IN, USA
    Search for more papers by this author

Abstract

The advent of high-throughput measurements of gene expression and bioinformatics analysis methods offers new ways to study gene expression patterns. The primary goal of this study was to determine the time sequence for gene expression in a bone subjected to mechanical loading during key periods of the bone-formation process, including expression of matrix-related genes, the appearance of active osteoblasts, and bone desensitization. A standard model for bone loading was employed in which the right forelimb was loaded axially for 3 minutes per day, whereas the left forearm served as a nonloaded contralateral control. We evaluated loading-induced gene expression over a time course of 4 hours to 32 days after the first loading session. Six distinct time-dependent patterns of gene expression were identified over the time course and were categorized into three primary clusters: genes upregulated early in the time course, genes upregulated during matrix formation, and genes downregulated during matrix formation. Genes then were grouped based on function and/or signaling pathways. Many gene groups known to be important in loading-induced bone formation were identified within the clusters, including AP-1-related genes in the early-response cluster, matrix-related genes in the upregulated gene clusters, and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway inhibitors in the downregulated gene clusters. Several novel gene groups were identified as well, including chemokine-related genes, which were upregulated early but downregulated later in the time course; solute carrier genes, which were both upregulated and downregulated; and muscle-related genes, which were primarily downregulated. © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

Ancillary