• 1
    Cherniack EP, Florez HJ, Hollis BW, Roos BA, Troen BR, Levis S. The response of elderly veterans to daily vitamin D3 supplementation of 2,000 IU: a pilot efficacy study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2011; 59(2):28690.
  • 2
    Shea MK, Houston DK, Tooze JA, Davis CC, Johnson MA, Hausman DB, Cauley JA, Bauer DC, Tylavsky F, Harris TB, Kritchevsky SB. Correlates and prevalence of insufficient 25-hydroxyvitamin D status in black and white older adults: the health, aging and body composition study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2011; 59(7):116574.
  • 3
    Wicherts IS, van Schoor NM, Boeke AJ, Visser M, Deeg DJ, Smit J, Knol DL, Lips P. Vitamin D status predicts physical performance and its decline in older persons. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007; 92(6):205865.
  • 4
    Wei MY, Giovannucci EL. Vitamin D and multiple health outcomes in the Harvard cohorts. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2010; 54(8):111426.
  • 5
    Dobnig H, Pilz S, Scharnagl H, Renner W, Seelhorst U, Wellnitz B, Maerz W. Independent association of low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Arch Int Med. 2008; 168(12):13409.
  • 6
    Michaelsson K, Baron JA, Snellman G, Gedeborg R, Byberg L, Sundstrom J, Berglund L, Arnlov J, Hellman P, Blomhoff R, Wolk A, Garmo H, Holmberg L, Melhus H. Plasma vitamin D and mortality in older men: a community-based prospective cohort study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010; 92(4):8418.
  • 7
    Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Willett WC, Wong JB, Stuck AE, Staehelin HB, Orav EJ, Thoma A, Kiel DP, Henschkowski J. Prevention of nonvertebral fractures with oral vitamin D and dose dependency: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Int Med. 2009; 169(6):55161.
  • 8
    Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Dawson-Hughes B, Staehelin HB, Orav JE, Stuck AE, Theiler R, Wong JB, Egli A, Kiel DP, Henschkowski J. Fall prevention with supplemental and active forms of vitamin D: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ. 2009; 339:b3692.
  • 9
    Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Conzelmann M, Stahelin HB, Dick W, Carpenter MG, Adkin AL, Theiler R, Pfeifer M, Allum JH. Is fall prevention by vitamin D mediated by a change in postural or dynamic balance?. Osteoporos Int. 2006; 17(5):6563.
  • 10
    Latham NK, Anderson CS, Lee A, Bennett DA, Moseley A, Cameron ID. A randomized, controlled trial of quadriceps resistance exercise and vitamin D in frail older people: the Frailty Interventions Trial in Elderly Subjects (FITNESS). J Am Geriatr Soc. 2003; 51(3):2919.
  • 11
    Sato Y, Iwamoto J, Kanoko T, Satoh K. Low-dose vitamin D prevents muscular atrophy and reduces falls and hip fractures in women after stroke: a randomized controlled trial. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2005; 20(3):18792.
  • 12
    Bunout D, Barrera G, Leiva L, Gattas V, de la Maza MP, Avendano M, Hirsch S. Effects of vitamin D supplementation and exercise training on physical performance in Chilean vitamin D deficient elderly subjects. Exper Gerontol. 2006; 41(8):74652.
  • 13
    Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Dietrich T, Orav EJ, Hu FB, Zhang Y, Karlson EW, Dawson-Hughes B. Higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are associated with better lower-extremity function in both active and inactive persons aged > or = 60 y. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004; 80(3):7528.
  • 14
    Boxer RS, Dauser DA, Walsh SJ, Hager WD, Kenny AM. The association between vitamin D and inflammation with the 6-minute walk and frailty in patients with heart failure. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2008; 56(3):45461.
  • 15
    Houston DK, Cesari M, Ferrucci L, Cherubini A, Maggio D, Bartali B, Johnson MA, Schwartz GG, Kritchevsky SB. Association between vitamin D status and physical performance: the InCHIANTI study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2007; 62(4):4406.
  • 16
    Kwon J, Suzuki T, Yoshida H, Kim H, Yoshida Y, Iwasa H. Concomitant lower serum albumin and vitamin D levels are associated with decreased objective physical performance among Japanese community-dwelling elderly. Gerontology. 2007; 53(5):3228.
  • 17
    Toffanello ED, Perissinotto E, Sergi G, Zambon S, Musacchio E, Maggi S, Coin A, Sartori L, Corti MC, Baggio G, Crepaldi G, Manzato E. Vitamin D and physical performance in elderly subjects: the Pro.V.A. study. PloS One. 2012; 7(4):e34950.
  • 18
    Chan R, Chan D, Woo J, Ohlsson C, Mellstrom D, Kwok T, Leung PC. Not all elderly people benefit from vitamin D supplementation with respect to physical function: results from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study. Hong Kong. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2012; 60(2):2905.
  • 19
    Ceglia L, Chiu GR, Harris SS, Araujo AB. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and physical function in adult men. Clin Endocrinol. 2011; 74(3):3706.
  • 20
    Michael YL, Smit E, Seguin R, Curb JD, Phillips LS, Manson JE. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and physical performance in postmenopausal women. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2011; 20(11):16038.
  • 21
    Houston DK, Neiberg RH, Tooze JA, Hausman DB, Johnson MA, Cauley JA, Bauer DC, Shea MK, Schwartz GG, Williamson JD, Harris TB, Kritchevsky SB. Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D predicts the onset of mobility limitation and disability in community-dwelling older adults: the Health ABC Study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2013; 68(2):1817.
  • 22
    Latham NK, Anderson CS, Reid IR. Effects of vitamin D supplementation on strength, physical performance, and falls in older persons: a systematic review. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2003; 51(9):121926.
  • 23
    Dhesi JK, Jackson SH, Bearne LM, Moniz C, Hurley MV, Swift CG, Allain TJ. Vitamin D supplementation improves neuromuscular function in older people who fall. Age Ageing. 2004; 33(6):58995.
  • 24
    Gallagher JC, Rapuri PB, Smith LM. An age-related decrease in creatinine clearance is associated with an increase in number of falls in untreated women but not in women receiving calcitriol treatment. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007; 92(1):518.
  • 25
    Mowe M, Haug E, Bohmer T. Low serum calcidiol concentration in older adults with reduced muscular function. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1999; 47(2):2206.
  • 26
    Bischoff HA, Stahelin HB, Urscheler N, Ehrsam R, Vonthein R, Perrig-Chiello P, Tyndall A, Theiler R. Muscle strength in the elderly: its relation to vitamin D metabolites. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1999; 80(1):548.
  • 27
    Zamboni M, Zoico E, Tosoni P, Zivelonghi A, Bortolani A, Maggi S, Di Francesco V, Bosello O. Relation between vitamin D, physical performance, and disability in elderly persons. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2002; 57(1):M711.
  • 28
    Dhesi JK, Bearne LM, Moniz C, Hurley MV, Jackson SH, Swift CG, Allain TJ. Neuromuscular and psychomotor function in elderly subjects who fall and the relationship with vitamin D status. J Bone Miner Res. 2002; 17(5):8917.
  • 29
    Greenspan SL, Resnick NM, Parker RA. Vitamin D supplementation in older women. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2005; 60(6):7549.
  • 30
    Scott D, Blizzard L, Fell J, Ding C, Winzenberg T, Jones G. A prospective study of the associations between 25-hydroxy-vitamin D, sarcopenia progression and physical activity in older adults. Clin Endocrinol. 2010; 73(5):5817.
  • 31
    Faulkner KA, Cauley JA, Zmuda JM, Landsittel DP, Newman AB, Studenski SA, Redfern MS, Ensrud KE, Fink HA, Lane NE, Nevitt MC. Higher 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 concentrations associated with lower fall rates in older community-dwelling women. Osteoporos Int. 2006; 17(9):131828.
  • 32
    Gerdhem P, Ringsberg KA, Obrant KJ, Akesson K. Association between 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels, physical activity, muscle strength and fractures in the prospective population-based OPRA Study of Elderly Women. Osteoporos Int. 2005; 16(11):142531.
  • 33
    Imms FJ, Edholm OG. Studies of gait and mobility in the elderly. Age Ageing. 1981; 10(3):14756.
  • 34
    Csuka M, McCarty DJ. Simple method for measurement of lower extremity muscle strength. Am J Med. 1985; 78(1):7781.
  • 35
    Briggs RC, Gossman MR, Birch R, Drews JE, Shaddeau SA. Balance performance among noninstitutionalized elderly women. Phys Ther. 1989; 69(9):74856.
  • 36
    Anemaet W, Moffa-Trotter M. Functional tools for assessing balance and gait impairments. Top Geriatr Rehab. 1999; 15(1):6683.
  • 37
    Lagari VS, Gomez-Marin O, Levis S. Differences in Vitamin D3 dosing regimens in a geriatric community-dwelling population. Endocr Pract. 2012;122.
  • 38
    Signorile JF, Sandler D, Ma F, Bamel S, Stanziano D, Smith W, Sandals L, Roos BA. The gallon-jug shelf-transfer test: an instrument to evaluate deteriorating function in older adults. J Aging Phys Act. 2007; 15(1):5674.
  • 39
    Heymsfield SB, Smith R, Aulet M, Bensen B, Lichtman S, Wang J, Pierson RN, Jr. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass: measurement by dual-photon absorptiometry. Am J Clin Nutr. 1990; 52(2):2148.
  • 40
    Kelly TL, Wilson KE, Heymsfield SB. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry body composition reference values from NHANES. PloS One. 2009; 4(9):e7038.
  • 41
    Kleinbaum D, Kupper L, Morgenstern H. Confounding. In: Kleinbaum D, Kupper L, Morgenstern H, editors. Epidemiologic research: principles and quantitative methods. Belmont. CA: Lifetime Learning Publications; p. 24265. 1982.
  • 42
    Schott GD, Wills MR. Muscle weakness in osteomalacia. Lancet. 1976; 1(7960):6269.
  • 43
    Bischoff HA, Stahelin HB, Dick W, Akos R, Knecht M, Salis C, Nebiker M, Theiler R, Pfeifer M, Begerow B, Lew RA, Conzelmann M. Effects of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on falls: a randomized controlled trial. J Bone Miner Res. 2003; 18(2):34351.
  • 44
    Brech GC, Alonso AC, Luna NM, Greve JM. Correlation of postural balance and knee muscle strength in the sit-to-stand test among women with and without postmenopausal osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int. 2013 Feb 2. [Epub ahead of print].
  • 45
    Annweiler C, Allali G, Allain P, Bridenbaugh S, Schott AM, Kressig RW, Beauchet O. Vitamin D and cognitive performance in adults: a systematic review. Eur J Neurol. 2009; 16(10):10839.
  • 46
    Brunner RL, Cochrane B, Jackson RD, Larson J, Lewis C, Limacher M, Rosal M, Shumaker S, Wallace R. Calcium, vitamin D supplementation, and physical function in the Women's Health Initiative. J Am Diet Assoc. 2008; 108(9):14729.
  • 47
    Pfeifer M, Begerow B, Minne HW, Abrams C, Nachtigall D, Hansen C. Effects of a short-term vitamin D and calcium supplementation on body sway and secondary hyperparathyroidism in elderly women. J Bone Miner Res. 2000; 15(6):11138.
  • 48
    Dukas L, Staehelin HB, Schacht E, Bischoff HA. Better functional mobility in community-dwelling elderly is related to D-hormone serum levels and to daily calcium intake. J Nutr Health Aging. 2005; 9(5):34751.
  • 49
    Marantes I, Achenbach SJ, Atkinson EJ, Khosla S, Melton LJ 3rd, Amin S. Is vitamin D a determinant of muscle mass and strength?. J Bone Miner Res. 2011; 26(12):286071.
  • 50
    Leblanc ES, Rizzo JH, Pedula KL, Ensrud KE, Cauley J, Hochberg M, Hillier TA. Associations between 25-hydroxyvitamin D and weight gain in elderly women. J Women's Health (Larchmt). 2012; 21(10):106673.