SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Gorustovich AA, Esposito MA, Guglielmotti MB, Giglio MJ. Mandibular bone remodeling under a choline-deficient diet: a histomorphometric study in rats. J Periodontol. 2003; 74(6):8317.
  • 2
    Iwamoto J, Seki A, Sato Y, Matsumoto H, Takeda T, Yeh JK. Effect of vitamin K2 on cortical and cancellous bone mass and hepatic lipids in rats with combined methionine-choline deficiency. Bone. 2011; 48(5):101521.
  • 3
    Olthof MR, Verhoef P. Effects of betaine intake on plasma homocysteine concentrations and consequences for health. Curr Drug Metab. 2005; 6(1):1522.
  • 4
    Olthof MR, Brink EJ, Katan MB, Verhoef P. Choline supplemented as phosphatidylcholine decreases fasting and postmethionine-loading plasma homocysteine concentrations in healthy men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005; 82(1):1117.
  • 5
    Gjesdal CG, Vollset SE, Ueland PM, Refsum H, Drevon CA, Gjessing HK, Tell GS. Plasma total homocysteine level and bone mineral density: the Hordaland Homocysteine Study. Arch Intern Med. 2006; 166(1):8894.
  • 6
    Gjesdal CG, Vollset SE, Ueland PM, Refsum H, Meyer HE, Tell GS. Plasma homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B 12 and the risk of hip fracture: the Hordaland Homocysteine Study. J Bone Miner Res. 2007; 22(5):74756.
  • 7
    Zeisel SH, Mar MH, Howe JC, Holden JM. Concentrations of choline-containing compounds and betaine in common foods. J Nutr. 2003; 133(5):13027.
  • 8
    Ueland PM. Choline and betaine in health and disease. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2011; 34(1):315.
  • 9
    Zeisel SH. Choline: an essential nutrient for humans. Nutrition. 2000; 16(7–8):66971.
  • 10
    Zeisel SH, da Costa KA. Choline: an essential nutrient for public health. Nutr Rev. 2009; 67(11):61523.
  • 11
    Farina EK, Kiel DP, Roubenoff R, Schaefer EJ, Cupples LA, Tucker KL. Plasma phosphatidylcholine concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids are differentially associated with hip bone mineral density and hip fracture in older adults: the Framingham Osteoporosis Study. J Bone Miner Res. 2012; 27(5):122230.
  • 12
    Kruger MC, Coetzee M, Haag M, Weiler H. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids: selected mechanisms of action on bone. Prog Lipid Res. 2010; 49(4):43849.
  • 13
    Krey G, Braissant O, L'Horset F, Kalkhoven E, Perroud M, Parker MG, Wahli W. Fatty acids, eicosanoids, and hypolipidemic agents identified as ligands of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors by coactivator-dependent receptor ligand assay. Mol Endocrinol. 1997; 11(6):77991.
  • 14
    Herrera BS, Ohira T, Gao L, Omori K, Yang R, Zhu M, Muscara MN, Serhan CN, Van Dyke TE, Gyurko R. An endogenous regulator of inflammation, resolvin E1, modulates osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. Br J Pharmacol. 2008; 155(8):121423.
  • 15
    Watkins BA, Li Y, Lippman HE, Feng S. Modulatory effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on osteoblast function and bone metabolism. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2003; 68(6):38798.
  • 16
    Coetzer H, Claassen N, van Papendorp DH, Kruger MC. Calcium transport by isolated brush border and basolateral membrane vesicles: role of essential fatty acid supplementation. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1994; 50(5):25766.
  • 17
    Russell RG, Espina B, Hulley P. Bone biology and the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2006; 18(Suppl 1):S310.
  • 18
    Walker LM, Preston MR, Magnay JL, Thomas PB, El Haj AJ. Nicotinic regulation of c-fos and osteopontin expression in human-derived osteoblast-like cells and human trabecular bone organ culture. Bone. 2001; 28(6):6038.
  • 19
    Hannan MT, Felson DT, Dawson-Hughes B, Tucker KL, Cupples LA, Wilson PW, Kiel DP. Risk factors for longitudinal bone loss in elderly men and women: the Framingham Osteoporosis Study. J Bone Miner Res. 2000; 15(4):71020.
  • 20
    Michnovicz JJ, Hershcopf RJ, Naganuma H, Bradlow HL, Fishman J. Increased 2-hydroxylation of estradiol as a possible mechanism for the anti-estrogenic effect of cigarette smoking. N Engl J Med. 1986; 315(21):13059.
  • 21
    Tanko LB, Christiansen C. An update on the antiestrogenic effect of smoking: a literature review with implications for researchers and practitioners. Menopause. 2004; 11(1):1049.
  • 22
    Jensen EX, Fusch C, Jaeger P, Peheim E, Horber FF. Impact of chronic cigarette smoking on body composition and fuel metabolism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1995; 80(7):21815.
  • 23
    Yanbaeva DG, Dentener MA, Creutzberg EC, Wesseling G, Wouters EF. Systemic effects of smoking. Chest. 2007; 131(5):155766.
  • 24
    Konstantinova SV, Tell GS, Vollset SE, Nygard O, Bleie O, Ueland PM. Divergent associations of plasma choline and betaine with components of metabolic syndrome in middle age and elderly men and women. J Nutr. 2008; 138(5):91420.
  • 25
    Frey B, Haupt R, Alms S, Holzmann G, Konig T, Kern H, Kox W, Rustow B, Schlame M. Increase in fragmented phosphatidylcholine in blood plasma by oxidative stress. J Lipid Res. 2000; 41(7):114553.
  • 26
    Nygard O, Vollset SE, Refsum H, Stensvold I, Tverdal A, Nordrehaug JE, Ueland PM, Kvale G. Total plasma homocysteine and cardiovascular risk profile. The Hordaland Homocysteine Study. JAMA. 1995; 274(19):152633.
  • 27
    Midttun O, Hustad S, Ueland PM. Quantitative profiling of biomarkers related to B-vitamin status, tryptophan metabolism and inflammation in human plasma by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2009; 23(9):13719.
  • 28
    Holm PI, Ueland PM, Kvalheim G, Lien EA. Determination of choline, betaine, and dimethylglycine in plasma by a high-throughput method based on normal-phase chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Clin Chem. 2003; 49(2):28694.
  • 29
    Gorber SC, Schofield-Hurwitz S, Hardt J, Levasseur G, Tremblay M. The accuracy of self-reported smoking: a systematic review of the relationship between self-reported and cotinine-assessed smoking status. Nicotine Tob Res. 2009; 11(1):1224.
  • 30
    Benowitz NL. Nicotine addiction. Prim Care. 1999; 26(3):61131.
  • 31
    O'Broin S, Kelleher B. Microbiological assay on microtitre plates of folate in serum and red cells. J Clin Pathol. 1992; 45(4):3447.
  • 32
    Perez-Stable EJ, Benowitz NL, Marin G. Is serum cotinine a better measure of cigarette smoking than self-report? Prev Med. 1995; 24(2):1719.
  • 33
    Fischer LM, daCosta KA, Kwock L, Stewart PW, Lu TS, Stabler SP, Allen RH, Zeisel SH. Sex and menopausal status influence human dietary requirements for the nutrient choline. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007; 85(5):127585.
  • 34
    da Costa KA, Badea M, Fischer LM, Zeisel SH. Elevated serum creatine phosphokinase in choline-deficient humans: mechanistic studies in C2C12 mouse myoblasts. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004; 80(1):16370.
  • 35
    Institute of Medicine. Dietary reference intakes for folate, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, biotin, and choline. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 1998.
  • 36
    da Costa KA, Kozyreva OG, Song J, Galanko JA, Fischer LM, Zeisel SH. Common genetic polymorphisms affect the human requirement for the nutrient choline. FASEB J. 2006; 20(9):133644.
  • 37
    Resseguie M, Song J, Niculescu MD, da Costa KA, Randall TA, Zeisel SH. Phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT) gene expression is induced by estrogen in human and mouse primary hepatocytes. FASEB J. 2007; 21(10):262232.
  • 38
    Jensen HH, Batres-Marquez SP, Carriquiry A, Schalinske KL. Choline in the diets of the U.S. population: NHANES, 2003–2004. FASEB J. 21:lb219.
  • 39
    Konstantinova SV, Tell GS, Vollset SE, Ulvik A, Drevon CA, Ueland PM. Dietary patterns, food groups, and nutrients as predictors of plasma choline and betaine in middle-aged and elderly men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008; 88(6):16639.
  • 40
    Eckel RH, Grundy SM, Zimmet PZ. The metabolic syndrome. Lancet. 2005; 365(9468):141528.
  • 41
    Raubenheimer PJ, Nyirenda MJ, Walker BR. A choline-deficient diet exacerbates fatty liver but attenuates insulin resistance and glucose intolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet. Diabetes. 2006; 55(7):201520.
  • 42
    Nisoli E, Clementi E, Carruba MO, Moncada S. Defective mitochondrial biogenesis: a hallmark of the high cardiovascular risk in the metabolic syndrome? Circ Res. 2007; 100(6):795806.
  • 43
    Karsenty G, Wagner EF. Reaching a genetic and molecular understanding of skeletal development. Dev Cell. 2002; 2(4):389406.
  • 44
    Chakravarthy MV, Lodhi IJ, Yin L, Malapaka RR, Xu HE, Turk J, Semenkovich CF. Identification of a physiologically relevant endogenous ligand for PPARalpha in liver. Cell. 2009; 138(3):47688.
  • 45
    Davies SS, Pontsler AV, Marathe GK, Harrison KA, Murphy RC, Hinshaw JC, Prestwich GD, Hilaire AS, Prescott SM, Zimmerman GA, McIntyre TM. Oxidized alkyl phospholipids are specific, high affinity peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma ligands and agonists. J Biol Chem. 2001; 276(19):1601523.
  • 46
    Lalloyer F, Staels B. Fibrates, glitazones, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010; 30(5):8949.
  • 47
    Stunes AK, Westbroek I, Gustafsson BI, Fossmark R, Waarsing JH, Eriksen EF, Petzold C, Reseland JE, Syversen U. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha agonist fenofibrate maintains bone mass, while the PPAR gamma agonist pioglitazone exaggerates bone loss, in ovariectomized rats. BMC Endocr Disord. 2011; 11:11.
  • 48
    Tamaki J, Iki M, Morita A, Ikeda Y, Sato Y, Kajita E, Kagamimori S, Kagawa Y, Yoneshima H. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma polymorphism is related to peak bone mass: the JPOS study. Osteoporos Int. 2010; 21(2):3219.
  • 49
    Ali AA, Weinstein RS, Stewart SA, Parfitt AM, Manolagas SC, Jilka RL. Rosiglitazone causes bone loss in mice by suppressing osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Endocrinology. 2005; 146(3):122635.
  • 50
    Rzonca SO, Suva LJ, Gaddy D, Montague DC, Lecka-Czernik B. Bone is a target for the antidiabetic compound rosiglitazone. Endocrinology. 2004; 145(1):4016.
  • 51
    Detopoulou P, Panagiotakos DB, Antonopoulou S, Pitsavos C, Stefanadis C. Dietary choline and betaine intakes in relation to concentrations of inflammatory markers in healthy adults: the ATTICA study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008; 87(2):42430.
  • 52
    Ershler WB, Keller ET. Age-associated increased interleukin-6 gene expression, late-life diseases, and frailty. Annu Rev Med. 2000; 51:24570.
  • 53
    Lacativa PG, Farias ML. Osteoporosis and inflammation. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. 2010; 54(2):12332.
  • 54
    Hardy R, Cooper MS. Bone loss in inflammatory disorders. J Endocrinol. 2009; 201(3):30920.
  • 55
    Grove RI, Allegretto NJ, Kiener PA, Warr GA. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) alters phosphatidylcholine metabolism in elicited peritoneal macrophages. J Leukoc Biol. 1990; 48(1):3842.
  • 56
    Innis SM, Davidson AG, Melynk S, James SJ. Choline-related supplements improve abnormal plasma methionine-homocysteine metabolites and glutathione status in children with cystic fibrosis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007; 85(3):7028.
  • 57
    Purohit V, Abdelmalek MF, Barve S, Benevenga NJ, Halsted CH, Kaplowitz N, Kharbanda KK, Liu QY, Lu SC, McClain CJ, Swanson C, Zakhari S. Role of S-adenosylmethionine, folate, and betaine in the treatment of alcoholic liver disease: summary of a symposium. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007; 86(1):1424.
  • 58
    Chawla RK, Watson WH, Eastin CE, Lee EY, Schmidt J, McClain CJ. S-adenosylmethionine deficiency and TNF-alpha in lipopolysaccharide-induced hepatic injury. Am J Physiol. 1998; 275(1 Pt 1):G1259.
  • 59
    Hermann AP, Brot C, Gram J, Kolthoff N, Mosekilde L. Premenopausal smoking and bone density in 2015 perimenopausal women. J Bone Miner Res. 2000; 15(4):7807.
  • 60
    Johnell O, Gullberg B, Kanis JA, Allander E, Elffors L, Dequeker J, Dilsen G, Gennari C, Lopes Vaz A, Lyritis G, et al. Risk factors for hip fracture in European women: the MEDOS Study. Mediterranean Osteoporosis Study. J Bone Miner Res. 1995; 10(11):180215.