• 1
    Endo Y, Aharonoff GB, Zuckerman JD, Egol KA, Koval KJ. Gender differences in patients with hip fracture: a greater risk of morbidity and mortality in men. J Orthop Trauma. 2005; 19(1):2935.
  • 2
    Hawkes WG, Wehren L, Orwig D, Hebel JR, Magaziner J. Gender differences in functioning after hip fracture. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2006; 61(5):4959.
  • 3
    Cawthon PM. Gender differences in osteoporosis and fractures. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2011; 469(7):19005.
  • 4
    Dy CJ, LaMont LE, Ton QV, Lane JM. Sex and Gender Considerations in Male Patients With Osteoporosis. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2011; 469(7):190612.
  • 5
    Geusens P, Sambrook P, Lems W. Fracture prevention in men. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2009; 5(9):497504.
  • 6
    Garrett IR, Boyce BF, Oreffo RO, Bonewald L, Poser J, Mundy GR. Oxygen-derived free radicals stimulate osteoclastic bone resorption in rodent bone in vitro and in vivo. J Clin Invest. 1990; 85(3):6329.
  • 7
    Lee NK, Choi YG, Baik JY, et al. A crucial role for reactive oxygen species in RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation. Blood. 2005; 106(3):8529.
  • 8
    Bai XC, Lu D, Liu AL, et al. Reactive oxygen species stimulates receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand expression in osteoblast. J Biol Chem. 2005; 280(17):17497506.
  • 9
    Li X, Han Y, Guan Y, Zhang L, Bai C, Li Y. Aluminum induces osteoblast apoptosis through the oxidative stress-mediated JNK signaling pathway. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2012; 150(1–3):5028.
  • 10
    Mody N, Parhami F, Sarafian AT, Demer LL. Oxidative stress modulates osteoblastic differentiation of vascular and bone cells. Free Radic Biol Med. 2001; 31(4):50919.
  • 11
    Manolagas SC. From estrogen-centric to aging and oxidative stress: a revised perspective of the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Endocr Rev. 2010; 31(3):266300.
  • 12
    Wauquier F, Leotoing L, Coxam V, Guicheux J, Wittrant Y. Oxidative stress in bone remodelling and disease. Trends Mol Med. 2009; 15(10):46877.
  • 13
    Kim L, Rao AV, Rao LG. Lycopene II—effect on osteoblasts: the carotenoid lycopene stimulates cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity of SaOS-2 cells. J Med Food. 2003; 6(2):7986.
  • 14
    Yamaguchi M, Uchiyama S. Effect of carotenoid on calcium content and alkaline phosphatase activity in rat femoral tissues in vitro: the unique anabolic effect of beta-cryptoxanthin. Biol Pharm Bull. 2003; 26(8):118891.
  • 15
    Maggio D, Polidori MC, Barabani M, et al. Low levels of carotenoids and retinol in involutional osteoporosis. Bone. 2006; 38(2):2448.
  • 16
    Sahni S, Hannan MT, Blumberg J, Cupples LA, Kiel DP, Tucker KL. Protective effect of total carotenoid and lycopene intake on the risk of hip fracture: a 17-year follow-up from the Framingham Osteoporosis Study. J Bone Miner Res. 2009; 24(6):108694.
  • 17
    Sahni S, Hannan MT, Blumberg J, Cupples LA, Kiel DP, Tucker KL. Inverse association of carotenoid intakes with 4-y change in bone mineral density in elderly men and women: the Framingham Osteoporosis Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009; 89(1):41624.
  • 18
    Sugiura M, Nakamura M, Ogawa K, Ikoma Y, Ando F, Yano M. Bone mineral density in post-menopausal female subjects is associated with serum antioxidant carotenoids. Osteoporos Int. 2008; 19(2):2119.
  • 19
    Sugiura M, Nakamura M, Ogawa K, et al. Dietary patterns of antioxidant vitamin and carotenoid intake associated with bone mineral density: findings from post-menopausal Japanese female subjects. Osteoporos Int. 2011; 22(1):14352.
  • 20
    Yang Z, Zhang Z, Penniston KL, Binkley N, Tanumihardjo SA. Serum carotenoid concentrations in postmenopausal women from the United States with and without osteoporosis. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2008; 78(3):10511.
  • 21
    Rao LG, Krishnadev N, Banasikowska K, Rao AV. Lycopene I—effect on osteoclasts: lycopene inhibits basal and parathyroid hormone-stimulated osteoclast formation and mineral resorption mediated by reactive oxygen species in rat bone marrow cultures. J Med Food. 2003; 6(2):6978.
  • 22
    Rao LG, Mackinnon ES, Josse RG, Murray TM, Strauss A, Rao AV. Lycopene consumption decreases oxidative stress and bone resorption markers in postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int. 2007; 18(1):10915.
  • 23
    Mackinnon ES, Rao AV, Josse RG, Rao LG. Supplementation with the antioxidant lycopene significantly decreases oxidative stress parameters and the bone resorption marker N-telopeptide of type I collagen in postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int. 2011; 22(4):1091101.
  • 24
    De Laet C, Kanis JA, Oden A, et al. Body mass index as a predictor of fracture risk: a meta-analysis. Osteoporos Int. 2005; 16(11):13308.
  • 25
    Drake MT, Murad MH, Mauck KF, et al. Clinical review. Risk factors for low bone mass-related fractures in men: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012; 97(6):186170.
  • 26
    Koh WP, Wu AH, Wang R, et al. Gender-specific associations between soy and risk of hip fracture in the Singapore Chinese Health Study. Am J Epidemiol. 2009; 170(7):9019.
  • 27
    Higashi Y, Sasaki S, Nakagawa K, et al. Low body mass index is a risk factor for impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation in humans: role of nitric oxide and oxidative stress. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003; 42(2):25663.
  • 28
    Loft S, Vistisen K, Ewertz M, Tjonneland A, Overvad K, Poulsen HE. Oxidative DNA damage estimated by 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine excretion in humans: influence of smoking, gender and body mass index. Carcinogenesis. 1992; 13(12):22417.
  • 29
    Mizoue T, Kasai H, Kubo T, Tokunaga S. Leanness, smoking, and enhanced oxidative DNA damage. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006; 15(3):5825.
  • 30
    World Health Organization. Appropriate body-mass index for Asian populations and its implications for policy and intervention strategies. Lancet. 2004; 363(9403):15763.
  • 31
    Koh WP, Yuan JM, Wang R, Lee HP, Yu MC. Body mass index and smoking-related lung cancer risk in the Singapore Chinese Health Study. Br J Cancer. 2010; 102(3):6104.
  • 32
    Hankin JH, Stram DO, Arakawa K, et al. Singapore Chinese Health Study: development, validation, and calibration of the quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Nutr Cancer. 2001; 39(2):18795.
  • 33
    Stram DO, Hankin JH, Wilkens LR, et al. Calibration of the dietary questionnaire for a multiethnic cohort in Hawaii and Los Angeles. Am J Epidemiol. 2000; 151(4):35870.
  • 34
    Cust AE, Smith BJ, Chau J, et al. Validity and repeatability of the EPIC physical activity questionnaire: a validation study using accelerometers as an objective measure. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2008; 5:33.
  • 35
    Willett WC, Howe GR, Kushi LH. Adjustment for total energy intake in epidemiologic studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997; 65(4 Suppl):1220S–18S; discussion 1229S–31S.
  • 36
    World Health Organization. Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic. Report on a WHO Consultation on Obesity. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 1997.
  • 37
    Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Recommended dietary allowances and adequate intakes, total water and macronutrients (1998). Washington, DC: The National Academies; 1998.
  • 38
    Benetou V, Orfanos P, Zylis D, et al. Diet and hip fractures among elderly Europeans in the EPIC cohort. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011; 65(1):1329.
  • 39
    Chen YM, Ho SC, Woo JL. Greater fruit and vegetable intake is associated with increased bone mass among postmenopausal Chinese women. Br J Nutr. 2006; 96(4):74551.
  • 40
    Prynne CJ, Mishra GD, O'Connell MA, et al. Fruit and vegetable intakes and bone mineral status: a cross sectional study in 5 age and sex cohorts. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006; 83(6):14208.
  • 41
    Tucker KL, Hannan MT, Chen H, Cupples LA, Wilson PW, Kiel DP. Potassium, magnesium, and fruit and vegetable intakes are associated with greater bone mineral density in elderly men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999; 69(4):72736.
  • 42
    Kaptoge S, Welch A, McTaggart A, et al. Effects of dietary nutrients and food groups on bone loss from the proximal femur in men and women in the 7th and 8th decades of age. Osteoporos Int. 2003; 14(5):41828.
  • 43
    Macdonald HM, Black AJ, Aucott L, et al. Effect of potassium citrate supplementation or increased fruit and vegetable intake on bone metabolism in healthy postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008; 88(2):46574.
  • 44
    Hamidi M, Boucher BA, Cheung AM, Beyene J, Shah PS. Fruit and vegetable intake and bone health in women aged 45 years and over: a systematic review. Osteoporos Int. 2011; 22(6):168193.
  • 45
    Dai Z, Wang R, Ang LW, Yuan JM, Koh WP. Dietary B vitamin intake and risk of hip fracture: the Singapore Chinese Health Study. Osteoporos Int. 2013 Jul; 24(7):204959.
  • 46
    Khosla S. Update on estrogens and the skeleton. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010; 95(8):356977.
  • 47
    Vinkler M, Albrecht T. Carotenoid maintenance handicap and the physiology of carotenoid-based signalisation of health. Naturwissenschaften. 2010; 97(1):1928.
  • 48
    Yamaguchi M, Weitzmann MN. The bone anabolic carotenoid p-hydroxycinnamic acid promotes osteoblast mineralization and suppresses osteoclast differentiation by antagonizing NF-kappa B activation. Int J Mol Med. 2012; 30(3):70812.
  • 49
    Park CK, Ishimi Y, Ohmura M, Yamaguchi M, Ikegami S. Vitamin A and carotenoids stimulate differentiation of mouse osteoblastic cells. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 1997; 43(3):28196.
  • 50
    Uchiyama S, Yamaguchi M. beta-cryptoxanthin stimulates cell differentiation and mineralization in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. J Cell Biochem. 2005; 95(6):122434.
  • 51
    Arnett TR. Extracellular pH regulates bone cell function. J Nutr. 2008; 138(2):415S8S.
  • 52
    Arnett TR, Dempster DW. Effect of pH on bone resorption by rat osteoclasts in vitro. Endocrinology. 1986; 119(1):11924.
  • 53
    Sebastian A, Harris ST, Ottaway JH, Todd KM, Morris RC Jr. Improved mineral balance and skeletal metabolism in postmenopausal women treated with potassium bicarbonate. N Engl J Med. 1994; 330(25):177681.
  • 54
    Sahni S, Hannan MT, Gagnon D, et al. Protective effect of total and supplemental vitamin C intake on the risk of hip fracture--a 17-year follow-up from the Framingham Osteoporosis Study. Osteoporos Int. 2009; 20:185361.
  • 55
    Simon JA, Hudes ES. Relation of ascorbic acid to bone mineral density and self-reported fractures among US adults. Am J Epidemiol. 2001; 154(5):42733.
  • 56
    Dawson-Hughes B, Shipp C, Sadowski L, Dallal G. Bone density of the radius, spine, and hip in relation to percent of ideal body weight in postmenopausal women. Calcif Tissue Int. 1987; 40(6):3104.
  • 57
    Kuller LH, Gutai JP, Meilahn E, Matthews KA, Plantinga P. Relationship of endogenous sex steroid hormones to lipids and apoproteins in postmenopausal women. Arteriosclerosis. 1990; 10(6):105866.
  • 58
    Djordjevic VB. Free radicals in cell biology. Int Rev Cytol. 2004; 237:5789.
  • 59
    El-Sohemy A, Baylin A, Kabagambe E, Ascherio A, Spiegelman D, Campos H. Individual carotenoid concentrations in adipose tissue and plasma as biomarkers of dietary intake. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002; 76(1):1729.
  • 60
    Davis SR, Castelo-Branco C, Chedraui P, et al. Understanding weight gain at menopause. Climacteric. 2012; 15(5):41929.
  • 61
    Clarke BL, Khosla S. Female reproductive system and bone. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2010; 503(1):11828.
  • 62
    Hu FB. Obesity Epidemiology Vol. 1 New York: Oxford University Press; 2008.
  • 63
    Connor Gorber S, Tremblay M, Moher D, Gorber B. A comparison of direct vs. self-report measures for assessing height, weight and body mass index: a systematic review. Obes Rev. 2007; 8(4):30726.
  • 64
    Reid IR. Relationships among body mass, its components, and bone. Bone. 2002; 31(5):54755.