• 1
    Cooper C, Eriksson JG, Forsén T, Osmond C, Tuomilehto J, Barker DJ. Maternal height, childhood growth and risk of hip fracture in later life: a longitudinal study. Osteoporos Int. 2001; 12(8):6239.
  • 2
    Javaid MK, Eriksson JG, Kajantie E, et al. Growth in childhood predicts hip fracture risk in later life. Osteoporos Int. 2011; 22(1):6973.
  • 3
    Godfrey K, Walker-Bone K, Robinson S, et al. Neonatal bone mass: influence of parental birthweight, maternal smoking, body composition, and activity during pregnancy. J Bone Miner Res. 2001; 16(9):1694703.
  • 4
    Harvey NC, Javaid MK, Arden NK, et al., Maternal predictors of neonatal bone size and geometry: the Southampton Women's Survey. J Dev Orig Health Dis. 2010; 1(1):3541.
  • 5
    Javaid MK, Crozier SR, Harvey NC, et al. Princess Anne Hospital Study Group. Maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy and childhood bone mass at age 9 years: a longitudinal study. Lancet. 2006; 367(9504):3643.
  • 6
    Harvey NC, Javaid MK, Poole JR, et al. Southampton Women's Survey Study Group. Paternal skeletal size predicts intrauterine bone mineral accrual. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008; 93(5):167681.
  • 7
    Rivadeneira F, Styrkársdottir U, Estrada K, et al. Genetic Factors for Osteoporosis (GEFOS) Consortium. Twenty bone-mineral-density loci identified by large-scale meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies. Nat Genet. 2009; 41(11):1199206.
  • 8
    Estrada K, Styrkarsdottir U, Evangelou E, et al. Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies 56 bone mineral density loci and reveals 14 loci associated with risk of fracture. Nat Genet. 2012; 44(5):491501.
  • 9
    Gluckman PD, Hanson MA, Cooper C, Thornburg KL. Effect of in utero and early-life conditions on adult health and disease. N Engl J Med. 2008; 359(1):6173.
  • 10
    Kong A, Steinthorsdottir V, Masson G, et al. Parental origin of sequence variants associated with complex diseases. Nature. 2009; 462(7275):86874.
  • 11
    Hanson RL, Guo T, Muller YL, et al. Strong parent-of-origin effects in the association of KCNQ1 variants with type 2 diabetes mellitus in American Indians. Diabetes. 2013 Aug; 62(8):298491.
  • 12
    Drake AJ, Liu L, Kerrigan D, Meehan RR, Seckl JR. Multigenerational programming in the glucocorticoid programmed rat is associated with generation-specific and parent of origin effects. Epigenetics. 2011; 6(11):133443.
  • 13
    Burdge GC, Lillycrop KA, Phillips ES, Slater-Jefferies JL, Jackson AA, Hanson MA. Folic acid supplementation during the juvenile-pubertal period in rats modifies the phenotype and epigenotype induced by prenatal nutrition. J Nutr. 2009; 139(6):105460.
  • 14
    Godfrey KM, Sheppard A, Gluckman PD, et al. Epigenetic gene promoter methylation at birth is associated with child's later adiposity. Diabetes. 2011; 60(5):152834.
  • 15
    Li G, Yin W, Chamberlain R, et al. Identification and characterization of the human retinoid X receptor alpha gene promoter. Gene. 2006; 372:11827.
  • 16
    Ahuja HS, Szanto A, Nagy L, Davies PJ. The retinoid X receptor and its ligands: versatile regulators of metabolic function, cell differentiation and cell death. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2003; 17(1):2945.
  • 17
    Takeyama K, Kato S. The vitamin D3 1alpha-hydroxylase gene and its regulation by active vitamin D3. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2011; 75(2):20813.
  • 18
    Inskip HM, Godfrey KM, Robinson SM, Law CM, Barker DJ, Cooper C. SWS Study Group. Cohort profile: the Southampton Women's Survey. Int J Epidemiol. 2006 Feb; 35(1):428.
  • 19
    Harvey NC, Lillycrop KA, Garratt E, et al., Evaluation of methylation status of the eNOS promoter at birth in relation to childhood bone mineral content. Calcif Tissue Int. 2012; 90(2):1207.
  • 20
    Dignam JD, Lebovitz RM, Roeder RG. Accurate transcription initiation by RNA polymerase II in a soluble extract from isolated mammalian nuclei. Nucleic Acids Res. 1983; 11(5):147589.
  • 21
    Prentice A, Parsons TJ, Cole TJ. Uncritical use of bone mineral density in absorptiometry may lead to size-related artifacts in the identification of bone mineral determinants. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994; 60(6):83742.
  • 22
    Bikle DD, Gee E, Halloran B, Kowalski MA, Ryzen E, Haddad JG. Assessment of the free fraction of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in serum and its regulation by albumin and the vitamin D-binding protein. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1986; 63(4):9549.
  • 23
    Talens RP, Boomsma DI, Tobi EW, et al. Variation, patterns, and temporal stability of DNA methylation: considerations for epigenetic epidemiology. FASEB J. 2010; 24(9):313544.
  • 24
    Kranz AL, Eils R, König R. Enhancers regulate progression of development in mammalian cells. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Nov 1; 39(20):8689702.
  • 25
    Park JH, Stoffers DA, Nicholls RD, Simmons RA. Development of type 2 diabetes following intrauterine growth retardation in rats is associated with progressive epigenetic silencing of Pdx1. J Clin Invest. 2008; 118(6):231624.
  • 26
    Brunton JA, Weiler HA, Atkinson SA. Improvement in the accuracy of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry for whole body and regional analysis of body composition: validation using piglets and methodologic considerations in infants. Pediatr Res. 1997; 41(4 Pt 1):5906.
  • 27
    Quandt K, Frech K, Karas H, Wingender E, Werner T. MatInd and MatInspector: new fast and versatile tools for detection of consensus matches in nucleotide sequence data. Nucleic Acids Res. 1995; 23(23):487884.
  • 28
    Heijmans BT, Tobi EW, Stein AD, et al. Persistent epigenetic differences associated with prenatal exposure to famine in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008; 105(44):170469.
  • 29
    Burdge GC, Slater-Jefferies J, Torrens C, Phillips ES, Hanson MA, Lillycrop KA. Dietary protein restriction of pregnant rats in the F0 generation induces altered methylation of hepatic gene promoters in the adult male offspring in the F1 and F2 generations. Br J Nutr. 2007; 97(3):4359.
  • 30
    Lillycrop KA, Phillips ES, Torrens C, Hanson MA, Jackson AA, Burdge GC. Feeding pregnant rats a protein-restricted diet persistently alters the methylation of specific cytosines in the hepatic PPAR alpha promoter of the offspring. Br J Nutr. 2008; 100(2):27882.
  • 31
    Sayers A, Tobias JH. Estimated maternal ultraviolet B exposure levels in pregnancy influence skeletal development of the child. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009; 94(3):76571.
  • 32
    Holick MF, Garabedian M. Vitamin D: photobiology, metabolism, mechanisms of action, and clinical applications. In: Favus MJ, editor. Primer on the metabolic bone diseases and mineral metabolism. Chicago: ASBMR; 2006. p.10614.
  • 33
    Kovacs CS, Kronenberg HM. Skeletal physiology: pregnancy and lactation. In: Favus MJ, editor. Primer on the metabolic bone diseases and mineral metabolism, Chicago: ASBMR; p. 637. 2006.
  • 34
    Kip SN, Strehler EE. Vitamin D3 upregulates plasma membrane Ca2+ -ATPase expression and potentiates apico-basal Ca2+ flux in MDCK cells. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2004; 286(2):F3639.
  • 35
    Fall CH, Dennison E, Cooper C, Pringle J, Kellingray SD, Hindmarsh P. Does birth weight predict adult serum cortisol concentrations? Twenty-four-hour profiles in the United Kingdom 1920–1930 Hertfordshire Birth Cohort. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002; 87(5):20017.
  • 36
    Lillycrop KA, Slater-Jefferies JL, Hanson MA, Godfrey KM, Jackson AA, Burdge GC. Induction of altered epigenetic regulation of the hepatic glucocorticoid receptor in the offspring of rats fed a protein-restricted diet during pregnancy suggests that reduced DNA methyltransferase-1 expression is involved in impaired DNA methylation and changes in histone modifications. Br J Nutr. 2007; 97(6):106473.