• 1
    Burge R, Dawson-Hughes B, Solomon DH, Wong JB, King A, Tosteson A. Incidence and economic burden of osteoporosis-related fractures in the United States, 2005–2025. J Bone Miner Res. 2007; 22:46575.
  • 2
    Zingmond DS, Melton LJ 3rd, Silverman SL. Increasing hip fracture incidence in California Hispanics, 1983 to 2000. Osteoporos Int. 2004; 15:60310.
  • 3
    Hiebert R, Aharonoff GB, Capla EL, Egol KA, Zuckerman JD, Koval KJ. Temporal and geographic variation in hip fracture rates for people aged 65 or older, New York State, 1985–1996. Am J Orthop. 2005; 34:2525.
  • 4
    Gehlbach SH, Avrunin JS, Puleo E. Trends in hospital care for hip fractures. Osteoporos Int. 2007; 18:58591.
  • 5
    Brauer CA, Coca-Perraillon M, Cutler DM, Rosen AB. Incidence and mortality of hip fractures in the United States. JAMA. 2009; 302:15739.
  • 6
    Wright NC, Saag KG, Curtis JR, et al. Recent trends in hip fracture rates by race/ethnicity among older US adults. J Bone Miner Res. 2012; 27:232532.
  • 7
    Melton LJ 3rd, Kearns AE, Atkinson EJ, et al. Secular trends in hip fracture incidence and recurrence. Osteoporos Int. 2009; 20:68794.
  • 8
    Melton LJ 3rd, Crowson CS, O'Fallon WM. Fracture incidence in Olmsted County, Minnesota: comparison of urban with rural rates and changes in urban rates over time. Osteoporos Int. 1999; 9:2937.
  • 9
    Bilezikian JP. Efficacy of bisphosphonates in reducing fracture risk in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Am J Med. 2009; 122:S1421.
  • 10
    Islam S, Liu Q, Chines A, Helzner E. Trend in incidence of osteoporosis-related fractures among 40- to 69-year-old women: analysis of a large insurance claims database, 2000–2005. Menopause. 2009; 16:7783.
  • 11
    Looker AC, Melton LJ 3rd, Borrud LG, Shepherd JA. Changes in femur neck bone density in US adults between 1988–1994 and 2005–2008: demographic patterns and possible determinants. Osteoporos Int. 2012; 23:77180.
  • 12
    Rocca WA, Yawn BP, St Sauver JL, Grossardt BR, Melton LJ 3rd. History of the Rochester Epidemiology Project: half a century of medical records linkage in a US population. Mayo Clin Proc. 2012; 87:120213.
  • 13
    St Sauver JL, Grossardt BR, Yawn BP, et al. Data resource profile: the Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP) medical records-linkage system. Int J Epidemiol. 2012; 41:161424.
  • 14
    ICD-9-CM. International Classification of Diseases 9th Revision Clinical Modification, volume 1, diseases tabular list. Ann Arbor, MI: Commission on Professional and Hospital Activities; 1978.
  • 15
    Melton LJ 3rd. The threat to medical-records research. N Engl J Med. 1997; 337:146670.
  • 16
    Cooper C, Atkinson EJ, O'Fallon WM, Melton LJ 3rd. Incidence of clinically diagnosed vertebral fractures: a population-based study in Rochester, Minnesota, 1985–1989. J Bone Miner Res. 1992; 7:2217.
  • 17
    St Sauver JL, Grossardt BR, Yawn BP, Melton LJ 3rd. Use of a medical records linkage system to enumerate a dynamic population over time: the Rochester Epidemiology Project. Am J Epidemiol. 2011; 173:105968.
  • 18
    Melton LJ 3rd, Atkinson EJ, Cooper C, O'Fallon WM, Riggs BL. Vertebral fractures predict subsequent fractures. Osteoporos Int. 1999; 10:21421.
  • 19
    McCullagh P, Nelder JA. Generalized linear models. Cox DR, Hinkley DV, Rubin D, Silvermann BW, editors. New York: Chapman and Hall; 1983. p.12747.
  • 20
    Clarke BL, Khosla S. Assessing the true impact of recurrent fractures on fracture risk. J Bone Miner Res. 2009; 24:15124.
  • 21
    Curtis JR, Taylor AJ, Matthews RS, et al. “ Pathologic” fractures: should these be included in epidemiologic studies of osteoporotic fractures? Osteoporos Int. 2009; 20:196972.
  • 22
    Delmas PD, Marin F, Marcus R, Misurski DA, Mitlak BH. Beyond hip: importance of other nonspinal fractures. Am J Med. 2007; 120:3817.
  • 23
    Donaldson LJ, Cook A, Thomson RG. Incidence of fractures in a geographically defined population. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1990; 44:2415.
  • 24
    van Staa TP, Dennison EM, Leufkens HG, Cooper C. Epidemiology of fractures in England and Wales. Bone. 2001; 29:51722.
  • 25
    Nieves JW, Bilezikian JP, Lane JM, et al. Fragility fractures of the hip and femur: incidence and patient characteristics. Osteoporos Int. 2010; 21:399408.
  • 26
    Cooper C, Cole ZA, Holroyd CR, et al. Secular trends in the incidence of hip and other osteoporotic fractures. Osteoporos Int. 2011; 22:127788.
  • 27
    Jaglal SB, Weller I, Mamdani M, et al. Population trends in BMD testing, treatment, and hip and wrist fracture rates: are the hip fracture projections wrong? J Bone Miner Res. 2005; 20:898905.
  • 28
    Bergström U, Jonsson H, Gustafson Y, Pettersson U, Stenlund H, Svensson O. The hip fracture incidence curve is shifting to the right. Acta Orthop. 2009; 80:5204.
  • 29
    Melton LJ 3rd, Amadio PC, Crowson CS, O'Fallon WM. Long-term trends in the incidence of distal forearm fractures. Osteoporos Int. 1998; 8:3418.
  • 30
    Jónsson B, Bengnér U, Redlund-Johnell I, Johnell O. Forearm fractures in Malmö, Sweden. Changes in the incidence occurring during the 1950s, 1980s and 1990s. Acta Orthop Scand. 1999; 70:12932.
  • 31
    Leslie WD, Sadatsafavi M, Lix LM, et al. Secular decreases in fracture rates 1986–2006 for Manitoba, Canada: a population-based analysis. Osteoporos Int. 2011; 22:213743.
  • 32
    Ettinger B, Black DM, Dawson-Hughes B, Pressman AR, Melton LJ 3rd. Updated fracture incidence rates for the US version of FRAX. Osteoporos Int. 2010; 21:2533.
  • 33
    Kanis JA, Johansson H, Oden A, Dawson-Hughes B, Melton LJ 3rd, McCloskey EV. The effects of a FRAX revision for the USA. Osteoporos Int. 2010; 21:3540.
  • 34
    Cooper C, Atkinson EJ, Kotowicz M, O'Fallon WM, Melton LJ 3rd. Secular trends in the incidence of postmenopausal vertebral fractures. Calcif Tissue Int. 1992; 51:1004.
  • 35
    Oudshoorn C, Hartholt KA, Zillikens MC, et al. Emergency department visits due to vertebral fractures in the Netherlands, 1986–2008: steep increase in the oldest old, strong association with falls. Injury. 2012; 43:45861.
  • 36
    Lindsay R, Pack S, Li Z. Longitudinal progression of fracture prevalence through a population of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int. 2005; 16:30612.
  • 37
    Delmas PD, van de Langerijt L, Watts NB, et al. Underdiagnosis of vertebral fractures is a worldwide problem: the IMPACT study. J Bone Miner Res. 2005; 20:55763.
  • 38
    Gehlbach SH, Bigelow C, Heimisdottir M, May S, Walker M, Kirkwood JR. Recognition of vertebral fracture in a clinical setting. Osteoporos Int. 2000; 11:57782.
  • 39
    Stafford RS, Drieling RL, Hersh AL. National trends in osteoporosis visits and osteoporosis treatment, 1988–2003. Arch Intern Med. 2004; 164:152530.
  • 40
    Curtis JR, Carbone L, Cheng H, et al. Longitudinal trends in use of bone mass measurement among older Americans, 1999–2005. J Bone Miner Res. 2008; 23:10617.
  • 41
    Farley JF, Blalock SJ. Trends and determinants of prescription medication use for treatment of osteoporosis. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2009; 66:1191201.
  • 42
    Kannus P, Palvanen M, Niemi S, Sievanen H, Parkkari J. Rate of proximal humeral fractures in older Finnish women between 1970 and 2007. Bone. 2009; 44:6569.
  • 43
    Palvanen M, Kannus P, Niemi S, Parkkari J. Secular trends in distal humeral fractures of elderly women: nationwide statistics in Finland between 1970 and 2007. Bone. 2010; 46:13558.
  • 44
    Bell JE, Leung BC, Spratt KF, et al. Trends and variation in incidence, surgical treatment, and repeat surgery of proximal humeral fractures in the elderly. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2011; 93:12131.
  • 45
    Kannus P, Palvanen M, Niemi S, Parkkari J, Jarvinen M. Stabilizing incidence of low-trauma ankle fractures in elderly people Finnish statistics in 1970–2006 and prediction for the future. Bone. 2008; 43:3402.
  • 46
    Ng AC, Drake MT, Clarke BL, et al. Trends in subtrochanteric, diaphyseal, and distal femur fractures, 1984–2007. Osteoporos Int. 2012; 23:17216.
  • 47
    Kannus P, Niemi S, Parkkari J, Palvanen M, Sievanen H. Alarming rise in fall-induced severe head injuries among elderly people. Injury. 2007; 38:813.
  • 48
    Jamieson LM, Roberts-Thomson KF. Hospitalized head injuries among older people in Australia, 1998/1999 to 2004/2005. Inj Prev. 2007; 13:2437.
  • 49
    Kannus P, Palvanen M, Niemi S, Parkkari J. Alarming rise in the number and incidence of fall-induced cervical spine injuries among older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2007; 62:1803.
  • 50
    Boufous S, Finch C, Lord S, Close J. The increasing burden of pelvic fractures in older people, New South Wales. Australia. Injury. 2005; 36:13239.
  • 51
    Lix LM, Yogendran MS, Leslie WD, et al. Using multiple data features improved the validity of osteoporosis case ascertainment from administrative databases. J Clin Epidemiol. 2008; 61:125060.
  • 52
    Schousboe JT, Paudel ML, Taylor BC, et al. Magnitude and consequences of misclassification of incident hip fractures in large cohort studies: the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures and Medicare claims data. Osteoporos Int. 2013; 24:80110.
  • 53
    Obrant KJ, Bengner U, Johnell O, Nilsson BE, Sernbo I. Increasing age-adjusted risk of fragility fractures: a sign of increasing osteoporosis in successive generations? Calcif Tissue Int. 1989; 44:15767.
  • 54
    Lauritzen JB, Schwarz P, Lund B, McNair P, Transbol I. Changing incidence and residual lifetime risk of common osteoporosis-related fractures. Osteoporos Int. 1993; 3:12732.