• 1
    Holick MF. Vitamin D deficiency. N Engl J Med. 2007; 357:26681.
  • 2
    Lips P, Van Schoor NM. The effect of vitamin D on bone and osteoporosis. Best Prac Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011; 25(4):58591.
  • 3
    Winzenberg T, Powell S, Shaw KA, Jones G. Effects of vitamin D supplementation on bone density in healthy children: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2011; 342:c7254.
  • 4
    Kimball S, El-Hajj Fuleihan G, Vieth R. Vitamin D: a growing perspective. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci. 2008; 45(4):339415.
  • 5
    El-Hajj Fuleihan G, Rahme M, Bassil D. Do desirable vitamin D levels vary globally?. In: Burckhardt P, Dawson-Hughes B, Weaver C, editors. Nutritional influences on bone health 8th International Symposium.: 1st ed. New York: Springer Science+Business Media; p. 27399; 2013.
  • 6
    Bassil D, Rahmeh M, Hoteit M, El-Hajj Fuleihan G. Hypovitaminosis D in the Middle East and North Africa: prevalence, risk factors, and impact on outcomes. Dermato-Endocrinology. 2013; 5(2):27498.
  • 7
    Arabi A, El Rassi R, El-Hajj Fuleihan G. Hypovitaminosis D in developing countries—prevalence, risk factors and outcomes. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2010; 6(10):55061.
  • 8
    El-Hajj Fuleihan G. Vitamin D deficiency in the Middle East and its health consequences. Clin Rev Bone Miner Metab. 2009; 7:7793.
  • 9
    Brouwer-Brolsma EM, Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Bouillon R, et al. Vitamin D: do we get enough? A discussion between vitamin D experts in order to make a step towards the harmonisation of dietary reference intakes for vitamin D across Europe. Osteoporos Int. 2013; 24(5):156777.
  • 10
    Wahl DA, Cooper C, Ebeling PR, et al. A global representation of vitamin D status in healthy populations. Arch Osteoporos. 2012; 7(1–2):15572.
  • 11
    Lerch C, Meissner T. Interventions for the prevention of nutritional rickets in term born children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007; 4:CD006164.
  • 12
    Ross C, Manson J, Abrams S, et al. The 2011 Report on Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D from the Institute of Medicine: what clinicians need to know. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011; 96(1):538.
  • 13
    Holick M, Binkley N, Bischoff-Ferrari H, et al. Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency: an Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011; 96(7):191130.
  • 14
    Wagner C, Greer F. Prevention of rickets and vitamin D deficiency in infants, children, and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2008; 122:1142.
  • 15
    Abrams S. Dietary guidelines for calcium and vitamin D: a new era. Pediatrics. 2011; 127:566.
  • 16
    El-Hajj Fuleihan G, Nabulsi M, Tamim H, et al. Effect of vitamin D replacement on musculoskeletal parameters in healthy school children: a randomized controlled trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006; 91:40512.
  • 17
    El-Hajj Fuleihan G, Vieth R. Vitamin D insufficiency and musculoskeletal health in children and adolescents. Int Cong Ser. 2007; 1297:91108.
  • 18
    Glastre C, Braillon P, David L, Cochat P, Meunier PJ, Delmas PD. Measurement of bone mineral content of the lumbar spine by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry in normal children: correlations with growth parameters. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1990; 70:13303.
  • 19
    Tanner JM. Physical growth and development. In: Forfar JO, Arneil GC, editors. Textbook of paediatrics. 2nd ed. Vol. 1. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone; p. 249303. 1978.
  • 20
    Salamoun MM, Kizirian AS, Tannous RI, et al. Low calcium and vitamin D intake in healthy children and adolescents and their correlates. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005; 59(2):17784.
  • 21
    Maalouf J, Nabulsi M, Vieth R, et al. Short term and long term safety of vitamin D3 supplementation in school children. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008; 93(7):2693701.
  • 22
    Looker AC, Dawson-Hughes B, Calvo MS, Gunter EW, Sahyoun NR. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status of adolescents and adults in two seasonal subpopulations from NHANES III. Bone. 2002; 30(5):7717.
  • 23
    Gordon CM, DePeter KC, Feldman HA, Grace E, Emans SJ. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among healthy adolescents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2004; 158(6):5317.
  • 24
    El-Hajj Fuleihan G, Nabulsi M, et al. Hypovitaminosis D in healthy schoolchildren. Pediatrics. 2001; 107(4):E53.
  • 25
    Abdul-Razzak K, Ajlony M, Khoursheed A, Obeidat B. Vitamin D deficiency among healthy infants and toddlers: a prospective study from Irbid. Jordan. Pediatrics Int. 2011; 53:83945.
  • 26
    Bener A, Al-Ali M, Hoffmann G. Vitamin D deficiency in healthy children in a sunny country: associated factors. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2009; 60(Suppl 5):6070.
  • 27
    Strand MA, Perry J, Jin M, et al. Diagnosis of rickets and reassessment of prevalence among rural children in Northern China. Pediatr Int. 2007; 49:2029.
  • 28
    Sachan A, Gupta R, Das V, Agarwal A, Awasthi PK, Bhatia V. High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant women and their newborns in northern India. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005; 81:10604.
  • 29
    Marwaha RK, Tandon N, Reddy DR, et al. Vitamin D and bone mineral density status of healthy schoolchildren in Northern India. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005; 82:47782.
  • 30
    Mithal A, Wahl DA, Bonjour JP, et al. Global vitamin D status and determinants of hypovitaminosis D. Osteoporos Int. 2009; 20(11):180720.
  • 31
    Nesby-O'Dell S, Scanlon KS, Cogswell ME, et al. Hypovitaminosis D prevalence and determinants among African American and white women of reproductive age: third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002; 76(1):18792.
  • 32
    Shakiba M, Ghadir M, Nafei Z, Akhavan Karbasi S, Lotfi MH, Shajari A. Study to evaluate two dosage regimens of vitamin D through an academic year in middle school girls: a randomized trial. Acta Med Iran. 2011; 49(12):7803.
  • 33
    Shakinba M, Tefagh S, Nafei Z. The optimal dose of vitamin D in growing girls during academic years: a randomized trial. Turk J Med Sci. 2011; 41(1):337.
  • 34
    Ghazi A, Hosseinpanah F, M Ardakani E, Ghazi S, Hedayati M, Azizi F. Effects of different doses of oral cholecalciferol on serum 25(OH)D, PTH, calcium and bone markers during fall and winter in schoolchildren. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010; 64(12):141522.
  • 35
    Dong Y, Stallmann-Jorgensen IS, Pollock NK, et al. A 16-week randomized clinical trial of 2000 international units daily vitamin D(3) supplementation in black youth: 25-hydroxyvitamin D, adiposity, and arterial stiffness. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010; 95(10):458491.
  • 36
    Gallagher JC, Sai A, Templin T 2nd, Smith L. Dose response to vitamin D supplementation in postmenopausal women: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2012; 156(6):42537.
  • 37
    Zhao LJ, Zhou Y, Bu F, et al. Factors predicting vitamin D response variation in non-Hispanic white postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012; 97(8):2699705.
  • 38
    Bell NH, Epstein S, Greene A, Shary J, Oexmann MJ, Shaw S. Evidence for alteration of the vitamin D-endocrine system in obese subjects. J Clin Invest. 1985; 76(1):3703.
  • 39
    Gordon CM. Vitamin D deficiency in adolescents: what can obesity teach us? J Adolesc Health. 2011; 48(5):4278.
  • 40
    Illich JZ, Badenhop NE, Jelic T, Clairmont AC, Nagode LA, Matkovic V. Calcitriol and bone mass accumulation in females during puberty. Calcif Tissue Int. 1997; 61:1049.
  • 41
    Putman MS, Pitts SA, Milliren CE, Feldman HA, Reinold K, Gordon CMJ. A randomized clinical trial of vitamin d supplementation in healthy adolescents. Adolesc Health. 2013; 52(5):5928.
  • 42
    Shea MK, Benjamin EJ, Dupuis J, et al. Genetic and non-genetic correlates of vitamins K and D. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009; 63:45864.
  • 43
    Wang T, Zhang F, Richards J, Kestenbaum B, van Meurs J, Berry D. Common genetic determinants of vitamin D insufficiency: a genome-wide association study. Lancet. 2010; 376(9736):1808.
  • 44
    Al Mutair A, Nasrat G, Russell D. Mutation of the CYP2R1 vitamin D 25-hydroxylase in a Saudi Arabian family with severe vitamin D deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012; 97:E20225.
  • 45
    Zgheib NK, Arabi A, Mahfouz R, El-hajj Fuleihan G. CYP2R1 genetic polymorphisms are associated with lower 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels in Lebanese subjects [abstract]. Presented at: 11th Annual Meeting of the European Association for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics; Geneva, Switzerland; 2013 Aug 28-31.