• 1
    Zhu K, Prince RL. Calcium and bone. Clin Biochem. 2012; 45(12):93642.
  • 2
    Foote JA, Murphy SP, Wilkens LR, Hankin JH, Henderson BE, Kolonel LN. Factors associated with dietary supplement use among healthy adults of five ethnicities: the Multiethnic Cohort Study. Am J Epidemiol. 2003; 157(10):88897.
  • 3
    Institute of Medicine. Dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D. Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine; 2011.
  • 4
    van Mierlo LA, Arends LR, Streppel MT, et al. Blood pressure response to calcium supplementation: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Hum Hypertens. 2006; 20(8):57180.
  • 5
    Major GC, Chaput JP, Ledoux M, et al. Recent developments in calcium-related obesity research. Obes Rev. 2008; 9(5):42845.
  • 6
    Hansson GK. Inflammation, atherosclerosis, and coronary artery disease. N Engl J Med. 2005; 352(16):168595.
  • 7
    Moore KJ, Tabas I. Macrophages in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Cell. 2011; 145(3):34155.
  • 8
    O'Leary DH, Polak JF, Kronmal RA, et al. Thickening of the carotid wall. A marker for atherosclerosis in the elderly? Cardiovascular Health Study Collaborative Research Group. Stroke. 1996; 27(2):22431.
  • 9
    Newman AB, Naydeck BL, Sutton-Tyrrell K, et al. Relationship between coronary artery calcification and other measures of subclinical cardiovascular disease in older adults. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2002; 22(10):16749.
  • 10
    Ebrahim S, Papacosta O, Whincup P, et al. Carotid plaque, intima media thickness, cardiovascular risk factors, and prevalent cardiovascular disease in men and women: the British Regional Heart Study. Stroke. 1999; 30(4):84150.
  • 11
    O'Leary DH, Polak JF, Kronmal RA, et al. Carotid-artery intima and media thickness as a risk factor for myocardial infarction and stroke in older adults. Cardiovascular Health Study Collaborative Research Group. N Engl J Med. 1999; 340(1):1422.
  • 12
    Prince RL, Devine A, Dhaliwal SS, Dick IM. Effects of calcium supplementation on clinical fracture and bone structure: results of a 5-year, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in elderly women. Arch Intern Med. 2006; 166(8):86975.
  • 13
    Bruce DG, Devine A, Prince RL. Recreational physical activity levels in healthy older women: the importance of fear of falling. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2002; 50(1):849.
  • 14
    Britt H, Scahill S, Miller G. ICPC PLUS for community health? A feasibility study. Health Inf Manage. 1997; 27(4):1715.
  • 15
    Hodge A, Patterson AJ, Brown WJ, Ireland P, Giles G. The Anti Cancer Council of Victoria FFQ: relative validity of nutrient intakes compared with weighed food records in young to middle-aged women in a study of iron supplementation. Aust N Z J Public Health. 2000; 24:57683.
  • 16
    Ireland P, Jolley D, Giles G, et al. Development of the Melbourne FFQ: a food frequency questionnaire for use in an Australian prospective study involving an ethnically diverse cohort. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 1994; 3:1931.
  • 17
    Friedewald WT, Levy RI, Fredrickson DS. Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem. 1972; 18(6):499502.
  • 18
    Levey AS, Stevens LA, Schmid CH, et al. A new equation to estimate glomerular filtration rate. Ann Intern Med. 2009; 150(9):60412.
  • 19
    Lewis JR, Lim W, Dhaliwal SS, et al. Estimated glomerular filtration rate as an independent predictor of atherosclerotic vascular disease in older women. BMC Nephrol. 2012; 13(1):58.
  • 20
    World Health Organization. Manual of the international statistical classification of diseases, injuries, and causes of death: based on the recommendations of the ninth revision conference, 1975, and adopted by the twenty-ninth World Health Assembly. Geneva: World Health Organization 1975; p.2v.
  • 21
    Salonen JT, Salonen R. Ultrasound B-mode imaging in observational studies of atherosclerotic progression. Circulation. 1993; 87(3 Suppl):II5665.
  • 22
    Ivey KL, Lewis JR, Hodgson JM, et al. Association between yogurt, milk, and cheese consumption and common carotid artery intima-media thickness and cardiovascular disease risk factors in elderly women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011; 94(1):2349.
  • 23
    Lewis JR, Calver J, Zhu K, Flicker L, Prince RL. Calcium supplementation and the risks of atherosclerotic vascular disease in older women: results of a 5-year RCT and a 4.5-year follow-up. J Bone Miner Res. 2011; 26(1):3541.
  • 24
    Nordin BE, Lewis JR, Daly RM, et al. The calcium scare—what would Austin Bradford Hill have thought? Osteoporos Int. 2011; 22(12):30737.
  • 25
    Lewis JR, Zhu K, Prince RL. Adverse events from calcium supplementation: relationship to errors in myocardial infarction self-reporting in randomized controlled trials of calcium supplementation. J Bone Miner Res. 2012; 27(3):71922.
  • 26
    Reid IR, Bolland MJ. Risk factors: calcium supplements and cardiovascular risk. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2012; 9(9):4978.
  • 27
    Manson JE, Allison MA, Carr JJ, et al. Calcium/vitamin D supplementation and coronary artery calcification in the Women's Health Initiative. Menopause. 2010; 17(4):68391.
  • 28
    Wang TK, Bolland MJ, van Pelt NC, et al. Relationships between vascular calcification, calcium metabolism, bone density, and fractures. J Bone Miner Res. 2010; 25(12):277785.
  • 29
    Samelson EJ, Booth SL, Fox CS, et al. Calcium intake is not associated with increased coronary artery calcification: the Framingham Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012; 96(6):127480.
  • 30
    Bolland M, Grey A, Reid IR. Calcium supplements and cardiovascular risk: 5 years on. Ther Adv Drug Safe. 2013; 4(5):199210.
  • 31
    Holman CD, Bass AJ, Rosman DL, et al. A decade of data linkage in Western Australia: strategic design, applications and benefits of the WA data linkage system. Aust Health Rev. 2008; 32(4):76677.
  • 32
    Barr EL, Tonkin AM, Welborn TA, Shaw JE. Validity of self-reported cardiovascular disease events in comparison to medical record adjudication and a statewide hospital morbidity database: the AusDiab study. Intern Med J. 2009; 39(1):4953.
  • 33
    Teng TH, Finn J, Hung J, Geelhoed E, Hobbs M. A validation study: how effective is the Hospital Morbidity Data as a surveillance tool for heart failure in Western Australia? Aust N Z J Public Health. 2008; 32(5):4057.
  • 34
    Chertow GM, Burke SK, Raggi P. Sevelamer attenuates the progression of coronary and aortic calcification in hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int. 2002; 62(1):24552.
  • 35
    Russo D, Miranda I, Ruocco C, et al. The progression of coronary artery calcification in predialysis patients on calcium carbonate or sevelamer. Kidney Int. 2007; 72(10):125561.
  • 36
    Burt MG, Mangelsdorf BL, Srivastava D, Petersons CJ. Acute effect of calcium citrate on serum calcium and cardiovascular function. J Bone Miner Res. 2013; 28(2):4128.
  • 37
    Mursu J, Robien K, Harnack LJ, Park K. Jacobs DR Jr. Dietary supplements and mortality rate in older women: the Iowa Women's Health Study. Arch Intern Med. 2011; 171(18):162533.
  • 38
    Langsetmo L, Berger C, Kreiger N, et al. Calcium and vitamin D intake and mortality: results from the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos). J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013; 98(7):30108.
  • 39
    Prentice RL, Pettinger MB, Jackson RD, et al. Health risks and benefits from calcium and vitamin D supplementation: Women's Health Initiative clinical trial and cohort study. Osteoporos Int. 2013; 24(2):56780.