• 1
    van Staa TP, Dennison EM, Leufkens HG, Cooper C. Epidemiology of fractures in England and Wales. Bone. 2001;29:517522.
  • 2
    Sambrook P, Cooper C. Osteoporosis. Lancet. 2006;367:20102018.
  • 3
    New SA, Bolton-Smith C, Grubb DA, Reid DM. Nutritional influences on bone mineral density: a cross-sectional study in premenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;65:18311839.
  • 4
    New SA, Robins SP, Campbell MK, et al. Dietary influences on bone mass and bone metabolism: further evidence of a positive link between fruit and vegetable consumption and bone health? Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71:142151.
  • 5
    Macdonald HM, New SA, Golden MH, Campbell MK, Reid DM. Nutritional associations with bone loss during the menopausal transition: evidence of a beneficial effect of calcium, alcohol, and fruit and vegetable nutrients and of a detrimental effect of fatty acids. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79:155165.
  • 6
    Tucker KL, Hannan MT, Chen H, Cupples LA, Wilson PW, Kiel DP. Potassium, magnesium, and fruit and vegetable intakes are associated with greater bone mineral density in elderly men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;69:727736.
  • 7
    Prynne CJ, Mishra GD, O'Connell MA, et al. Fruit and vegetable intakes and bone mineral status: a cross sectional study in 5 age and sex cohorts. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;83:14201428.
  • 8
    Macdonald HM, Black AJ, Aucott L, et al. Effect of potassium citrate supplementation or increased fruit and vegetable intake on bone metabolism in healthy postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;88:465474.
  • 9
    Muhlbauer RC, Li F. Effect of vegetables on bone metabolism. Nature. 1999;401:343344.
  • 10
    Muhlbauer RC, Lozano A, Reinli A. Onion and a mixture of vegetables, salads, and herbs affect bone resorption in the rat by a mechanism independent of their base excess. J Bone Miner Res. 2002;17:12301236.
  • 11
    Johnell O, Gullberg B, Kanis JA, et al., Risk factors for hip fracture in European women: the MEDOS Study. Mediterranean Osteoporosis Study. J Bone Miner Res. 1995;10:18021815.
  • 12
    Kanis J, Johnell O, Gullberg B, et al. Risk factors for hip fracture in men from southern Europe: the MEDOS study. Mediterranean Osteoporosis Study. Osteoporos Int. 1999;9:4554.
  • 13
    Horcajada-Molteni MN, Crespy V, Coxam V, Davicco MJ, Remesy C, Barlet JP. Rutin inhibits ovariectomy-induced osteopenia in rats. J Bone Miner Res. 2000;15:22512258.
  • 14
    Chiba H, Uehara M, Wu J, et al. Hesperidin, a citrus flavonoid, inhibits bone loss and decreases serum and hepatic lipids in ovariectomized mice. J Nutr. 2003;133:18921897.
  • 15
    Wattel A, Kamel S, Mentaverri R, et al. Potent inhibitory effect of naturally occurring flavonoids quercetin and kaempferol on in vitro osteoclastic bone resorption. Biochem Pharmacol. 2003;65:3542.
  • 16
    Garton MJ, Torgerson DJ, Donaldson C, Russell IT, Reid DM. Recruitment methods for screening programmes: trial of a new method within a regional osteoporosis study. BMJ. 1992;305:8284.
  • 17
    Torgerson DJ, Garton MJ, Donaldson C, Russell IT, Reid DM. Recruitment methods for screening programmes: trial of an improved method within a regional osteoporosis study. BMJ. 1993;307:99.
  • 18
    Macdonald HM, McGuigan FE, Fraser WD, New SA, Ralston SH, Reid DM. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphism interacts with riboflavin intake to influence bone mineral density. Bone. 2004;35:957964.
  • 19
    MacDonald AG, Birkinshaw G, Durham B, Bucknall RC, Fraser WD. Biochemical markers of bone turnover in seronegative spondylarthropathy: relationship to disease activity. Br J Rheumatol. 1997;36:5053.
  • 20
    Bolton-Smith C, Casey CE, Gey KF, Smith WC, Tunstall-Pedoe H. Antioxidant vitamin intakes assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire: correlation with biochemical status in smokers and non-smokers. Br J Nutr. 1991;65:337346.
  • 21
    New SA. An epidemiological investigation into the influence of nutritional factors on bone mineral density and bone metabolism. PhD Thesis, University of Aberdeen, Scotland, UK. 1995.
  • 22
    Kyle J, Masson LF, Grubb DA, Duthie GG, McNeill G. Estimating dietarty flavonoid intake: comparison of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire with 4-day weighed diet records in a Scottish population, vol. 61 Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, pp 69A. 2002.
  • 23
    U.S. Department of Agriculture ARS 2004 USDA database for the flavonoid content of selected foods.
  • 24
    McLoone P. Carstairs scores for Scottish postcode sectors from the 1991 census, vol. PhD. University of Glasgow, Glasgow. 1994.
  • 25
    Tunstall-Pedoe H, Smith WC, Crombie IK, Tavendale R. Coronary risk factor and lifestyle variation across Scotland: results from the Scottish Heart Health Study. Scott Med J. 1989;34:556560.
  • 26
    Willett W, Stampfer MJ. Total energy intake: implications for epidemiologic analyses. Am J Epidemiol. 1986;124:1727.
  • 27
    Hertog MG, Kromhout D, Aravanis C, et al. Flavonoid intake and long-term risk of coronary heart disease and cancer in the seven countries study. Arch Intern Med. 1995;155:381386.
  • 28
    de Vries JH, Janssen PL, Hollman PC, van Staveren WA, Katan MB. Consumption of quercetin and kaempferol in free-living subjects eating a variety of diets. Cancer Lett. 1997;114:141144.
  • 29
    Kyle JA. Flavonoids in Health and Disease [PhD thesis]. Aberdeen, Scotland: University of Aberdeen; 2006.
  • 30
    Bingham SA, Gill C, Welch A, et al. Comparison of dietary assessment methods in nutritional epidemiology: weighed records v. 24h recalls, food-frequency questionnaires and estimated-diet records. Br J Nutr. 1994;72:619643.
  • 31
    Chun OK, Chung SJ, Song WO. Estimated dietary flavonoid intake and major food sources of U.S. adults. J Nutr. 2007;137:12441252.
  • 32
    Willett WC. Invited commentary: comparison of food frequency questionnaires. Am J Epidemiol. 1998;148:11571159 discussion 1162-1155.
  • 33
    Nielsen SE, Freese R, Kleemola P, Mutanen M. Flavonoids in human urine as biomarkers for intake of fruits and vegetables. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2002;11:459466.
  • 34
    Williamson G, Manach C. Bioavailability and bioefficacy of polyphenols in humans. II. Review of 93 intervention studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;81 (1 Suppl): 243S255S.
  • 35
    Manach C, Scalbert A, Morand C, Remesy C, Jimenez L. Polyphenols: food sources and bioavailability. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79:727747.
  • 36
    Silberberg M, Morand C, Mathevon T, et al. The bioavailability of polyphenols is highly governed by the capacity of the intestine and of the liver to secrete conjugated metabolites. Eur J Nutr. 2006;45:8896.
  • 37
    Haraldsdottir J. Minimizing error in the field: quality control in dietary surveys. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1993;47 (Suppl 2): S1924.
  • 38
    Amanatidis S, Mackerras D, Simpson JM. Comparison of two frequency questionnaires for quantifying fruit and vegetable intake. Public Health Nutr. 2001;4:233239.
  • 39
    Kyle JA, Morrice PC, McNeill G, Duthie GG. Effects of infusion time and addition of milk on content and absorption of polyphenols from black tea. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55:48894894.
  • 40
    Block G. A review of validations of dietary assessment methods. Am J Epidemiol. 1982;115:492505.
  • 41
    Fjelkner-Modig S, Johansson K, Ewald C, Akesson B, Sjoholm I. Flavonoids in vegetables - the influence of processing Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Natural Antioxidants and Anticarcinagens in Nutrition, Health and Disease. 1998.
  • 42
    Delmas PD. Biochemical markers of bone turnover. J Bone Miner Res. 1993;8 (Suppl 2): S549555.
  • 43
    Sahni S, Hannan MT, Blumberg J, Cupples LA, Kiel DP, Tucker KL. Protective effect of total carotenoid and lycopene intake on the risk of hip fracture: a 17-year follow-up from the Framingham Osteoporosis Study. J Bone Miner Res. 2009;24:10861094.
  • 44
    Sun B, Spranger I, Yang J, et al. Red wine phenolic complexes and their in vitro antioxidant activity. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:86238627.
  • 45
    Tucker KL, Jugdaohsingh R, Powell JJ, et al. Effects of beer, wine, and liquor intakes on bone mineral density in older men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89:11881196.
  • 46
    Hegarty VM, May HM, Khaw KT. Tea drinking and bone mineral density in older women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71:10031007.
  • 47
    Wu CH, Yang YC, Yao WJ, Lu FH, Wu JS, Chang CJ. Epidemiological evidence of increased bone mineral density in habitual tea drinkers. Arch Intern Med. 2002;162:10011006.
  • 48
    Chen Z, Pettinger MB, Ritenbaugh C, et al. Habitual tea consumption and risk of osteoporosis: a prospective study in the women's health initiative observational cohort. Am J Epidemiol. 2003;158:772781.
  • 49
    Hingorjo MR, Syed S, Qureshi MA. Role of exercise in osteoporosis prevention--current concepts. J Pak Med Assoc. 2008;58:7881.
  • 50
    Deyhim F, Garica K, Lopez E, et al. Citrus juice modulates bone strength in male senescent rat model of osteoporosis. Nutrition. 2006;22:559563.
  • 51
    Key LLJ, Wolf WC, Gundberg CM, Ries WL. Superoxide and bone resorption. Bone. 1994;15:431436.
  • 52
    Kuiper GG, Lemmen JG, Carlsson B, et al. Interaction of estrogenic chemicals and phytoestrogens with estrogen receptor beta. Endocrinology. 1998;139:42524263.