• 1
    Ferguson SS. Evolving concepts in G protein-coupled receptor endocytosis: the role in receptor desensitization and signaling. Pharmacol Rev. 2001; 53: 124.
  • 2
    Wolfe BL, Trejo J. Clathrin-dependent mechanisms of G protein-coupled receptor endocytosis. Traffic. 2007; 8: 46270.
  • 3
    Malecz N, Bambino T, Bencsik M, Nissenson RA. Identification of phosphorylation sites in the G protein-coupled receptor for parathyroid hormone. Receptor phosphorylation is not required for agonist-induced internalization. Mol Endocrinol. 1998; 12: 184656.
  • 4
    Chauvin S, Bencsik M, Bambino T, Nissenson RA. PTH receptor recycling: role of receptor dephosphorylation and ß-arrestin. Mol Endocrinol. 2002; 16: 272032.
  • 5
    Tawfeek HA, Qian F, Abou-Samra AB. Phosphorylation of the receptor for PTH and PTHrP is required for internalization and regulates receptor signaling. Mol Endocrinol. 2002; 16: 113.
  • 6
    Vilardaga JP, Krasel C, Chauvin S, Bambino T, Lohse MJ, Nissenson RA. Internalization determinants of the parathyroid hormone receptor differentially regulate ß-arrestin/receptor association. J Biol Chem. 2002; 277: 81219.
  • 7
    Miedlich SU, Abou-Samra AB. Eliminating phosphorylation sites of the parathyroid hormone receptor type 1 differentially affects stimulation of phospholipase C and receptor internalization. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2008; 295: E66571.
  • 8
    Ferrari SL, Behar V, Chorev M, Rosenblatt M, Bisello A. Endocytosis of ligand-human parathyroid hormone receptor 1 complexes is PKC-dependent and involves ß-arrestin2. Real-time monitoring by fluorescence microscopy. J Biol Chem. 1999; 274: 2996875.
  • 9
    Conway BR, Minor LK, Xu JZ, D'Andrea MR, Ghosh RN, Demarest KT. Quantitative analysis of agonist-dependent parathyroid hormone receptor trafficking in whole cells using a functional green fluorescent protein conjugate. J Cell Physiol. 2001; 189: 34155.
  • 10
    Sneddon WB, Syme CA, Bisello A, Magyar CE, Weinman EJ, Rochdi MD, Parent JL, Abou-Samra AB, Friedman PA. Activation-independent parathyroid hormone receptor internalization is regulated by NHERF1 (EBP50). J Biol Chem. 2003; 278: 4378796.
  • 11
    Wheeler DG, Sneddon WB, Wang B, Friedman PA, Romero G. NHERF-1 and the cytoskeleton regulate the traffic and membrane dynamics of G protein-coupled receptors. J Biol Chem. 2007; 282: 2507687.
  • 12
    Wang B, Yang Y, Abou-Samra AB, Friedman PA. NHERF1 regulates parathyroid hormone receptor desensitization; interference with ß-arrestin binding. Mol Pharmacol. 2009; 75: 118997.
  • 13
    Tamura T, Sakamoto H, Filburn CR. Parathyroid hormone 1-34, but not 3-34 or 7-34, transiently translocates PKC in cultured renal (OK) cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1989; 159: 13528.
  • 14
    Fujimori A, Cheng S-L, Avioli LV, Civitelli R. Structure-function relationship of parathyroid hormone: activation of phospholipase-C, protein kinase-A and -C in osteosarcoma cells. Endocrinology. 1992; 130: 2936.
  • 15
    Slatopolsky E, Finch J, Clay P, Martin D, Sicard G, Singer G, Gao P, Cantor T, Dusso A. A novel mechanism for skeletal resistance in uremia. Kidney Int. 2000; 58: 75361.
  • 16
    Gentili C, Boland R, de Boland AR. PTH stimulates PLCβ and PLCγ isoenzymes in rat enterocytes: influence of ageing. Cell Signal. 2001; 13: 1318.
  • 17
    Lepage R, Roy L, Brossard JH, Rousseau L, Dorais C, Lazure C, D'Amour P. A non-(I-84) circulating parathyroid hormone (PTH) fragment interferes significantly with intact PTH commercial assay measurements in uremic samples. Clin Chem. 1998; 44: 8059.
  • 18
    John MR, Goodman WG, Gao P, Cantor TL, Salusky IB, Jüppner H. A novel immunoradiometric assay detects full-length human PTH but not amino-terminally truncated fragments: Implications for PTH measurements in renal failure. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999; 84: 428790.
  • 19
    Coen G, Bonucci E, Ballanti P, Balducci A, Calabria S, Nicolai GA, Fischer MS, Lifrieri F, Manni M, Morosetti M, Moscaritolo E, Sardella D. PTH 1-84 and PTH “7-84” in the noninvasive diagnosis of renal bone disease. Am J Kidney Dis. 2002; 40: 34854.
  • 20
    Monier-Faugere MC, Geng Z, Mawad H, Friedler RM, Gao P, Cantor TL, Malluche HH. Improved assessment of bone turnover by the PTH-(1-84)/large C-PTH fragments ratio in ESRD patients. Kidney Int. 2001; 60: 14608.
  • 21
    Yamashita H, Gao P, Cantor T, Futata T, Murakami T, Uchino S, Watanabe S, Kawamoto H, Fukagawa M, Noguchi S. Large carboxy-terminal parathyroid hormone (PTH) fragment with a relatively longer half-life than 1-84 PTH is secreted directly from the parathyroid gland in humans. Eur J Endocrinol. 2003; 149: 3016.
  • 22
    Ureña P, Kubrusly M, Mannstadt M, Hruby M, Trinh Trang Tan M-M, Silve C, Lacour B, Abou-Samra AB, Segre GV, Drüeke T. The renal PTH/PTHrP receptor is down-regulated in rats with chronic renal failure. Kidney Int. 1994; 45: 60511.
  • 23
    Tian J, Smogorzewski M, Kedes L, Massry SG. PTH-PTHrP receptor mRNA is downregulated in chronic renal failure. Am J Nephrol. 1994; 14: 416.
  • 24
    Edwards RM, Contino LC, Gellai M, Brooks DP. Parathyroid hormone-1 receptor down-regulation in kidneys from rats with chronic renal failure. Pharmacology. 2001; 62: 2437.
  • 25
    Chen J, Zhang J, Lin S. Down-regulation of PTH/PTHrP receptor in the kidney of patients with renal impairment. Chin Med J (Engl). 1998; 111: 247.
  • 26
    Shenoy SK. Seven-transmembrane receptors and ubiquitination. Circ Res. 2007; 100: 114254.
  • 27
    Wojcikiewicz RJ. Regulated ubiquitination of proteins in GPCR-initiated signaling pathways. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2004; 25: 3541.
  • 28
    Hurley JH, Stenmark H. Molecular mechanisms of ubiquitin-dependent membrane traffic. Annu Rev Biophys. 2010.
  • 29
    Cook LB, Zhu C-C, Hinkle PM. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor processing: role of ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Mol Endocrinol. 2003; 17: 177791.
  • 30
    Cohen BD, Bariteau JT, Magenis LM, Dias JA. Regulation of follitropin receptor cell surface residency by the ubiquitin-proteasome Pathway. Endocrinology. 2003; 144: 4393402.
  • 31
    Martin NP, Lefkowitz RJ, Shenoy SK. Regulation of V2 vasopressin receptor degradation by agonist-promoted ubiquitination. J Biol Chem. 2003; 278: 459549.
  • 32
    Shenoy SK, McDonald PH, Kohout TA, Lefkowitz RJ. Regulation of receptor fate by ubiquitination of activated ß2-adrenergic receptor and ß-Arrestin. Science. 2001; 294: 130713.
  • 33
    Lupp A, Klenk C, Rocken C, Evert M, Mawrin C, Schulz S. Immunohistochemical identification of the PTHR1 parathyroid hormone receptor in normal and neoplastic human tissues. Eur J Endocrinol. 2010; 162: 97986.
  • 34
    Wang B, Bisello A, Yang Y, Romero GG, Friedman PA. NHERF1 regulates parathyroid hormone receptor membrane retention without affecting recycling. J Biol Chem. 2007; 282: 3621422.
  • 35
    Zhang P, Jobert AS, Couvineau A, Silve C. A homozygous inactivating mutation in the parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone-related peptide receptor causing Blomstrand chondrodysplasia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998; 83: 33658.
  • 36
    Wang B, Yang Y, Friedman PA. Na/H Exchange regulator factor 1, a novel Akt-associating protein, regulates extracellular signal-related signaling through a B-Raf-mediated pathway. Mol Biol Cell. 2008; 19: 163745.
  • 37
    Wang B, Yang Y. Generation of human PTH1R construct with Flag epitope located internally: comparison of two-fragment assembly by using PCR overlap extension or ligase. J Biomol Tech. 2009; 20: 195200.
  • 38
    Alonso V, Ardura JA, Wang B, Sneddon WB, Friedman PA. A naturally occurring isoform inhibits parathyroid hormone receptor trafficking and signaling. J Bone Miner Res. 2011; 26: 14355.
  • 39
    Chaturvedi K, Bandari P, Chinen N, Howells RD. Proteasome involvement in agonist-induced down-regulation of mu and delta opioid receptors. J Biol Chem. 2001; 276: 1234555.
  • 40
    Lee DH, Goldberg AL. Proteasome inhibitors: valuable new tools for cell biologists. Trends Cell Biol. 1998; 8: 397403.
  • 41
    Salcini AE, Chen H, Iannolo G, De Camilli P, Di Fiore PP. Epidermal growth factor pathway substrate 15, Eps15. Int J Biochem. 1999; 31: 8059.
  • 42
    de Melker AA, van der Horst G, Borst J. Ubiquitin ligase activity of c-Cbl guides the epidermal growth factor receptor into clathrin-coated pits by two distinct modes of Eps15 recruitment. J Biol Chem. 2004; 279: 5546573.
  • 43
    Kuhlbrodt K, Mouysset J, Hoppe T. Orchestra for assembly and fate of polyubiquitin chains. Essays Biochem. 2005; 41: 114.
  • 44
    Reyes-Turcu FE, Ventii KH, Wilkinson KD. Regulation and cellular roles of ubiquitin-specific deubiquitinating enzymes. Annu Rev Biochem. 2009; 78: 36397.
  • 45
    Miles RR, Sluka JP, Halladay DL, Santerre RF, Hale LV, Bloem L, Patanjali SR, Galvin RJ, Ma L, Hock JM, Onyia JE. Parathyroid hormone (hPTH 1-38) stimulates the expression of UBP41, an ubiquitin-specific protease, in bone. J Cell Biochem. 2002; 85: 22942.
  • 46
    Willins DL, Berry SA, Alsayegh L, Backstrom JR, Sanders-Bush E, Friedman L, Roth BL. Clozapine and other 5-hydroxytryptamine-2A receptor antagonists alter the subcellular distribution of 5-hydroxytryptamine-2A receptors in vitro and in vivo. Neuroscience. 1999; 91: 599606.
  • 47
    Bhowmick N, Narayan P, Puett D. The endothelin subtype A receptor undergoes agonist- and antagonist-mediated internalization in the absence of signaling. Endocrinology. 1998; 139: 318592.
  • 48
    Roettger BF, Ghanekar D, Rao R, Toledo C, Yingling J, Pinon D, Miller LJ. Antagonist-stimulated internalization of the G protein-coupled cholecystokinin receptor. Mol Pharmacol. 1997; 51: 35762.
  • 49
    Bhattacharyya S, Puri S, Miledi R, Panicker MM. Internalization and recycling of 5-HT2A receptors activated by serotonin and protein kinase C-mediated mechanisms. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2002; 99: 144705.
  • 50
    Bhattacharya S, Raote I, Bhattacharya A, Miledi R, Panicker MM. Activation, internalization, and recycling of the serotonin 2A receptor by dopamine. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2006; 103: 1524853.
  • 51
    Raote I, Bhattacharya A, Panicker MM. Serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) Receptor Function: Ligand-Dependent Mechanisms and Pathways. In: Chattopadhyay A, editor. Serotonin Receptors in Neurobiology. 2011/01/05 ed., Boca Raton; 2007. pp 10532.
  • 52
    Kurz JB, Perkins JP. Isoproterenol-initiated ß-adrenergic receptor diacytosis in cultured cells. Mol Pharmacol. 1992; 41: 37581.
  • 53
    von Zastrow M, Kobilka BK. Ligand-regulated internalization and recycling of human beta 2-adrenergic receptors between the plasma membrane and endosomes containing transferrin receptors. J Biol Chem. 1992; 267: 35308.
  • 54
    Moore RH, Sadovnikoff N, Hoffenberg S, Liu S, Woodford P, Angelides K, Trial JA, Carsrud ND, Dickey BF, Knoll BJ. Ligand-stimulated ß2-adrenergic receptor internalization via the constitutive endocytic pathway into rab5-containing endosomes. J Cell Sci. 1995; 108(Pt 9): 298391.
  • 55
    Tsao PI, von Zastrow M. Type-specific sorting of G protein-coupled receptors after endocytosis. J Biol Chem. 2000; 275: 1113040.
  • 56
    Klenk C, Schulz S, Calebiro D, Lohse MJ. Agonist-regulated cleavage of the extracellular domain of parathyroid hormone receptor type 1. J Biol Chem. 2010; 285: 866574.
  • 57
    Abou-Samra AB, Goldsmith PK, Xie LY, Jüppner H, Spiegel AM, Segre GV. Down-regulation of parathyroid (PTH)/PTH-related peptide receptor immunoreactivity and PTH binding in opossum kidney cells by PTH and dexamethasone. Endocrinology. 1994; 135: 258894.
  • 58
    Hicke L, Dunn R. Regulation of membrane protein transport by ubiquitin and ubiquitin-binding proteins. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 2003; 19: 14172.
  • 59
    Li JG, Haines DS, Liu-Chen LY. Agonist-promoted Lys63-linked polyubiquitination of the human kappa-opioid receptor is involved in receptor down-regulation. Mol Pharmacol. 2008; 73: 131930.
  • 60
    Murray EJ, Bentley GV, Grisanti MS, Murray SS. The ubiquitin-proteasome system and cellular proliferation and regulation in osteoblastic cells. Exp Cell Res. 1998; 242: 4609.
  • 61
    Zhao L, Huang J, Guo R, Wang Y, Chen D, Xing L. Smurf1 inhibits mesenchymal stem cell proliferation and differentiation into osteoblasts through JunB degradation. J Bone Miner Res. 2010; 25: 124656.
  • 62
    Yamashita M, Ying SX, Zhang GM, Li C, Cheng SY, Deng CX, Zhang YE. Ubiquitin ligase Smurf1 controls osteoblast activity and bone homeostasis by targeting MEKK2 for degradation. Cell. 2005; 121: 10113.
  • 63
    Komander D, Clague MJ, Urbe S. Breaking the chains: structure and function of the deubiquitinases. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2009; 10: 55063.
  • 64
    Milojevic T, Reiterer V, Stefan E, Korkhov VM, Dorostkar MM, Ducza E, Ogris E, Boehm S, Freissmuth M, Nanoff C. The ubiquitin-specific protease Usp4 regulates the cell surface level of the A2A receptor. Mol Pharmacol. 2006; 69: 108394.
  • 65
    Berlin I, Schwartz H, Nash PD. Regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor ubiquitination and trafficking by the USP8.STAM complex. J Biol Chem. 2010; 285: 3490921.
  • 66
    Berthouze M, Venkataramanan V, Li Y, Shenoy SK. The deubiquitinases USP33 and USP20 coordinate beta2 adrenergic receptor recycling and resensitization. EMBO J. 2009; 28: 168496.
  • 67
    Ferrandon S, Feinstein TN, Castro M, Wang B, Bouley R, Potts JT, Gardella TJ, Vilardaga JP. Sustained cyclic AMP production by parathyroid hormone receptor endocytosis. Nat Chem Biol. 2009; 5: 73442.
  • 68
    Garrido JL, Wheeler D, Vega LL, Friedman PA, Romero G. Role of phospholipase D in parathyroid hormone receptor type 1 signaling and trafficking. Mol Endocrinol. 2009; 23: 204859.
  • 69
    Feinstein TN, Wehbi VL, Ardura JA, Wheeler DS, Ferrandon S, Gardella TJ, Vilardaga JP. Retromer terminates the generation of cAMP by internalized PTH receptors. Nat Chem Biol. 2011; 7: 27884.
  • 70
    Llach F. Secondary hyperparathyroidism in renal failure: The trade-off hypothesis revisited. Am J Kidney Dis. 1995; 25: 66379.