Skeletal unloading–induced insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) Nonresponsiveness is not shared by platelet-derived growth factor: The selective role of integrins in IGF-1 signaling



Integrin receptors bind extracellular matrix proteins, and this link between the cell membrane and the surrounding matrix may translate skeletal loading to biologic activity in osteoprogenitor cells. The interaction between integrin and growth factor receptors allows for mechanically induced regulation of growth factor signaling. Skeletal unloading leads to decreased bone formation and osteoblast proliferation that can be explained in part by a failure of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) to activate its signaling pathways in unloaded bone. The aim of this study is to determine whether unloading-induced resistance is specific for IGF-1 or common to other skeletal growth factors, and to examine the regulatory role of integrins in IGF-1 signaling. Bone marrow osteoprogenitor (BMOp) cells were isolated from control or hindlimb suspended rats. Unloaded BMOp cells treated with IGF-1 failed to respond with increased proliferation, receptor phosphorylation, or signaling activation in the setting of intact ligand binding, whereas the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) response was fully intact. Pretreatment of control BMOp cells with an integrin inhibitor, echistatin, failed to disrupt PDGF signaling but blocked IGF-1 signaling. Recovery of IGF-1 signaling in unloaded BMOp cells followed the recovery of marked reduction in integrin expression induced by skeletal unloading. Selective targeting of integrin subunits with siRNA oligonucleotides revealed that integrin β1 and β3 are required for normal IGF-1 receptor phosphorylation. We conclude that integrins, in particular integrin β3, are regulators of IGF-1, but not PDGF, signaling in osteoblasts, suggesting that PDGF could be considered for investigation in prevention and/or treatment of bone loss during immobilization and other forms of skeletal unloading. © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research