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Keywords:

  • VITAMIN D;
  • OSTEOCALCIN;
  • ADIPOSITY;
  • TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS;
  • INFLAMMATION

Abstract

Nonclassic actions of vitamin D include potential regulation of immune function and glucose homeostasis. The bone-metabolism loop has recently been expanded to include osteocalcin, which appears to play a more direct role in pancreatic beta cell function and energy metabolism. We hypothesized that both vitamin D and osteocalcin would correlate negatively with indices of adiposity-related comorbidity risk in periadolescents, varying by ethnic group. We analyzed anthropometric, metabolic, and inflammatory markers from a multiethnic population of 106 school children 11 to 14 years of age studied as part of the Reduce Obesity and Diabetes (ROAD) consortium. As expected, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH vitamin D) was inversely correlated with intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH); total osteocalcin (OCN) and uncarboxylated osteocalcin (uOCN) were directly correlated with each other. OCN and uOCN concentrations correlated inversely with age. Vitamin D deficiency was most prevalent among East Asians (EA) and African Americans (AA). The highest lipid risk scores and homeostatic model for assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values were seen in the South Asian (SA) group. Overall, adiposity measures were inversely correlated with OCN and iPTH, whereas such relationships were not observed for vitamin D. Acute insulin response to glucose challenge correlated negatively with uOCN in all subjects; however, lipid risk score correlated negatively with uOCN only in whites. The relationships between markers of calcium metabolism and body composition, glucose homeostasis, lipids, and inflammation all showed racial and ethnic differences. No consistent relationship was found between vitamin D and adiposity or vitamin D and glucose metabolism; instead vitamin D levels varied by race and ethnicity in this school-based group. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that markers of calcium and bone metabolism may reflect risk for adiposity-related comorbidities in children. © 2012 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research