Integrins and osteoclastic resorption in three bone organ cultures: Differential sensitivity to synthetic arg-gly-asp peptides during osteoclast formation

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Abstract

We investigated possible inhibitory effects of five synthetic Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-containing peptides on osteoclastic resorption in three distinct in vitro resorption assays (17-day-old fetal mouse bone organ cultures) that differ in stages of osteoclast differentiation. RGD peptides, which can bind the adhesion receptors called integrins, inhibited osteoclastic resorption (45Ca release) in fetal mouse bone explants in which osteoclast precursors have yet to adhere to the mineralized matrix and develop into mature osteoclasts (metacarpals and coculture system). Treatment of metacarpals with RGD peptides inhibited the formation of multinucleated TRAP+ osteoclasts in the mineralized matrix because their mononuclear TRAP+ osteoclast precursors remained localized in the periosteum. In particular, echistatin, a viper venom protein with known affinity for αvβ3 integrin, and GdRGDSP inhibited osteoclastic resorption dose dependently in these systems (ED50 10−9 and 10−4 M, respectively) but did not alter the activity of mature resorbing osteoclasts in radii. In addition, 45Ca release was significantly inhibited by the cyclic peptide GPenGRGDSPCA, which has a relatively higher affinity for the vitronectin than fibronectin receptor(s). In contrast, GRDGdSP, which has a much higher affinity for the fibronectin receptor (than the vitronectin receptors), had no effect on resorption at similar concentrations in any resorption system used. In summary, the data presented in this paper show that peptides with RGD motifs are capable of inhibiting osteoclastic resorption in bone organ cultures. Our studies not only support the hypothesis concerning the importance of αvβ3 in osteoclastic resorption but also suggest an important role of integrin(s) in events preceding the actual resorption of calcified matrix by osteoclasts.

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