Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) is a member of the chemokine superfamily of genes that induces chemotaxis of monocytes in inflammatory processes. The effects of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB), parathyroid hormone (PTH), and 1,25(OH)2D3 on MCP-1 expression in human osteoblastic cells were compared. Inflammatory or proinflammatory cytokines stimulated the production of MCP-1 in normal human osteoblastic cells as determined by RIA. The osteotrophic mediators PTH and 1,25(OH)2D3 and PDGF-BB had no effect on MCP-1 expression. In further studies, the steady-state mRNA and MCP-1 protein levels in two human osteoblastic cell lines, MG-63 and SaOS-2, were examined. MCP-1 expression at both the protein and mRNA levels was greatly increased by IL-1β and TNF-α. At the mRNA level, IL-1β and TNF-α strongly induced MCP-1 expression; TGF-β and IL-6 induced MCP-1 but to a lesser extent. No significant changes in MCP-1 mRNA or MCP-1 protein secretion were observed when cells were treated with PDGF-BB, PTH, and 1,25(OH)2D3. When tested on preosteoclasts, MCP-1 was shown to have no effect on the formation of multinucleated, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive osteoclastic cells.