Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) has been recognized for its marked anabolic effect on bone, but the bone gain is lost after the cessation of PGE2 treatment. In previous studies, we were successful in maintaining the new bone by administering a bisphosphonate after the withdrawal of PGE2 treatment. The objective of this study was to determine the fate of the extra bone induced by a combination with PGE2 and risedronate after discontinuing treatment. Ninety-six 9-month-old virgin female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 1 or 5 μg of risedronate/ kg/twice weekly, 6 mg of PGE2/kg/day alone or 6 mg of PGE2/kg/day plus 1 or 5 μg of risedronate/kg/twice weekly for 60 days (day 0) and followed by 60 days without treatment (day 60). We have reported the results from the groups treated for 60 days previously. This report is restricted to the histomorphometric findings on the secondary spongiosa of the proximal tibial metaphysis in the groups after withdrawal for 60 days. We found that the only group that maintained the PGE2 induced new bone after withdrawal was the group treated with 6 mg of PGE2/kg/day plus 5 μg of risedronate/kg/twice a week. Withdrawal of this combined treatment depressed bone turnover (bone-based bone formation rate, activation frequency) and bone resorption (percent eroded perimeter). The tissue mechanisms responsible for the protection drew from the previously deposited risedronate.