Induction of neuronal damage in guinea pig brain by intratracheal infusion of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, a mustard gas analog

Authors

  • Jessica Gadsden-Gray,

    1. Department of Biochemistry and Cancer Biology, Meharry Medical College, Nashville, TN 37208, USA
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  • Shyamali Mukherjee,

    1. Department of Professional Education, Meharry Medical College, Nashville, TN 37208, USA
    2. Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, Meharry Medical College, Nashville, TN 37208, USA
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  • Olugbemiga Ogunkua,

    1. Department of Biochemistry and Cancer Biology, Meharry Medical College, Nashville, TN 37208, USA
    2. Department of Professional Education, Meharry Medical College, Nashville, TN 37208, USA
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  • Salil K. Das

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Biochemistry and Cancer Biology, Meharry Medical College, Nashville, TN 37208, USA
    • Department of Biochemistry and Cancer Biology, Meharry Medical College, Nashville, TN 37208, USA
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Abstract

Intratracheal infusion of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), a mustard gas analog and a chemical warfare agent is known to cause massive damage to lung. The purpose of this study was to determine whether intratracheal CEES infusion causes neuronal damage. Histological, immunohistochemical, and Western blot studies indicated that CEES treatment caused dose-dependent increases in blood cell aggregation, microglial cell number, microglial activation, and brain inflammation. In addition, an increased expression of α-synuclein and a decreased expression of the dopamine transporter were observed. The results indicate that intratracheal CEES infusion is associated with changes in brain morphology mediated by an increase in α-synuclein expression, leading to neurotoxicity in a guinea pig model. These changes may be mediated by oxidative stress. Furthermore, the present study indicates for the first time that intratracheal infusion of a single dose of CEES can cause neuroinflammation, which may lead to neurological disorders in later part of life. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 26:23–30 2012; View this article online at wileyonlinelibrary.com. DOI 10.1002/jbt.20409

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