Lipoprotein apheresis (LA) is believed to exert anti-atherosclerotic effects beyond LDL-cholesterol reduction. We investigated 22 patients undergoing regular LA on a weekly basis (group A) before (AP) and after LA procedure (EP), 15 healthy individuals (group B), and 22 hyperlipoproteinemic patients with concomitant cardiovascular end organ damage treated without LA therapy (group C). Biomarkers of endothelial inflammation (hsCRP), plaque destabilization, and rupture (sVCAM, MMP-9, PAPP-A, ADMA) were quantified. Intergroup comparison revealed a statistically significant lower MMP-9 level in group A (AP and EP) compared with group C (P < 0.01), whereas PAPP-A levels were lower in group B compared with group A and C (P = 0.04). EP ADMA-levels and EP sVCAM levels in group A were statistically lower compared with group B and C. AP and EP values comparison revealed a significant reduction for hsCRP (mean 41.0 ± 16.7%, P < 0.01), sVCAM (mean 69.6 ± 14.0%, P < 0.01), PAPP-A (mean 88.7 ± 20.4%, P < 0.01), ADMA (mean 69.7 ± 18.4% P < 0.01). In conclusion, we observed a transient decrease in the plasma concentrations of several biomarkers expressed during plaque destabilization and elevated cardiovascular risk after a single LA treatment. J. Clin. Apheresis 29:235–242, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.