Each of the many different box H/ACA ribonucleoprotein particles (RNPs) present in eukaryotes and archaea consists of four common core proteins and one specific H/ACA small RNA, which bears the sequence elements H (ANANNA) and ACA. Most of the H/ACA RNPs are small nucleolar RNPs (snoRNPs), which are localized in nucleoli, and are one of the two major classes of snoRNPs. Most H/ACA RNPs direct pseudouridine synthesis in pre-rRNA and other RNAs. One H/ACA small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA), vertebrate E1/U17 (snR30 in yeast), is required for pre-rRNA cleavage processing that generates mature 18S rRNA. E1 snoRNA is encoded in introns of protein-coding genes, and the evidence suggests that human E1 RNA undergoes uridine insertional RNA editing. The vertebrate E1 RNA consensus secondary structure shows several features that are absent in other box H/ACA snoRNAs. The available UV-induced RNA-protein crosslinking results suggest that the E1 snoRNP is asymmetrical in vertebrate cells, in contrast to other H/ACA snoRNPs. The vertebrate E1 snoRNP in cells is surprisingly complex: (i) E1 RNA contacts directly and specifically several proteins which do not appear to be any of the H/ACA RNP four core proteins; and (ii) multiple E1 RNA sites are needed for E1 snoRNP formation, E1 RNA stability, and E1 RNA–protein direct interactions. J. Cell. Biochem. 98: 486–495, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.