Recent studies have suggested that leptin hormone may play a pivotal role on bone remodeling through a direct effect by modulating positively the OPG/RANKL balance. Here, we investigate the effect of leptin hormone on RANKL and OPG expression in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts using RT-PCR and ELISA measurements. We have at first identified the expression of Ob-Rb and Ob-Ra leptin receptor isoforms in MC3T3-E1 and observed that these cells respond to mrleptin treatments. We then investigated the effect of mrleptin on RANKL and OPG expression. We show that mrleptin dose-dependently regulated the expression of RANKL mRNA with complete inhibition observed at concentrations higher than 12 ng/ml. This effect was confirmed with sRANKL protein measurements. However, the exposure of MC3T3-E1 to mrleptin had no effect on OPG mRNA. Taken together, these results suggest that leptin modulates positively OPG/RANKL balance by inhibiting the expression of RANKL gene. J. Cell. Biochem. 98: 1123–1129, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.