Developmentally important genes have recently been linked to tissue regeneration and epithelial cell repair in neonatal and adult animals in several organs, including liver, skin, prostate, and musculature. We hypothesized that developmentally important genes play roles in lung injury repair in adult mice. Although there is considerable information known about these processes, the specific molecular pathways that mediate injury and regulate tissue repair are not fully elucidated. Using a hyperoxic injury model to study these mechanisms of lung injury and tissue repair, we selected the following genes based upon their known or putative roles in lung development and organogenesis: TTF-1, FGF9, FGF10, BMP4, PDGF-A, VEGF, Ptc, Shh, Sca-1, BCRP, CD45, and Cyclin-D2. Our findings demonstrate that several developmentally important genes (Sca-1, Shh, PDGF-A, VEGF, BCRP, CD45, BMP4, and Cyclin-D2) change during hyperoxic injury and normoxic recovery in mice, suggesting that adult lung may reactivate key developmental regulatory pathways for tissue repair. The mRNA for one gene (TTF-1), unchanged during hyperoxia, was upregulated late in recovery phase. These novel findings provide the basis for testing the efficacy of post-injury lung repair in animals genetically modified to inactivate or express individual molecules. J. Cell. Biochem. 100: 1415–1429, 2007. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.