Many studies have indicated that serotonin and its transporter play a role in bone metabolism. In this study we investigated the effect of selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI), fluoxetine (Prozac®) on bone architecture and quality in growing female rats. We therefore administrated rats with clinically relevant doses of fluoxetine for a period of 6 months. DXA scans were performed during the treatment period in order to follow parameters as body weight, fat percentage and BMD. After 6 months of treatment, femurs were used to analyze bone architecture and bone strength, by means of µCT scans and three-point bending assays, respectively. We found a slightly diminished bone quality, reflected in a lower bone tissue strength, which was compensated by changes in bone geometry. As leptin and adiponectin could be possible factors in the serotonergic regulation of bone metabolism, we also determined the levels of these factors in plasma samples of all animals. Leptin and adiponectin levels were not different between the control group and fluoxetine-treated group, indicating that these factors were not involved in the observed changes in bone geometry and quality. J. Cell. Biochem. 101: 360–368, 2007. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.