• PI-3K;
  • AKT;
  • cyclin D1;
  • proliferation;
  • arsenite


Exposure of arsenite can induce hyperproliferation of skin cells, which is believed to play important roles in arsenite-induced carcinogenesis by affecting both promotion and progression stages. However, the signal pathways and target genes activated by arsenite exposure responsible for the proliferation remain to be defined. In the present study, we found that: (1) exposure of human keratinocytic HaCat cells to arsenite caused an increase in cell proliferation, which was significantly inhibited by pretreatment of wortmannin, a specific chemical inhibitor of PI-3K/Akt signal pathway; (2) arsenite exposure was also able to activate PI-3K/Akt signal pathway, which thereby induced the elevation of cyclin D1 expression level in both HaCat cells and human primary keratinocytes based on that inhibition of PI-3K/Akt pathway by either pretreatment of wortmannin or the transfection of their dominant mutants, significantly inhibited cyclin D1 expression upon arsenite exposure; (3) PI-3K/Akt pathway is implicated in arsenite-induced proliferation of HaCat cells through the induction of cyclin D1 because either knockdown of cyclin D1 by its siRNA or inhibition of PI-3K/Akt signal pathway by their dominant mutants markedly impaired the proliferation of HaCat cells induced by arsenite exposure. Taken together, we provide the direct evidence that PI-3K/Akt pathway plays a role in the regulation of cell proliferation through the induction of cyclin D1 in human keratinocytes upon arsenite treatment. Given the importance of aberrant cell proliferation in cell transformation, we propose that the activation of PI-3K/Akt pathway and cyclin D1 induction may be the important mediators of human skin carcinogenic effect of arsenite. J. Cell. Biochem. 101: 969–978, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.