Biomarkers, regerons, and pathways to lethal cancer


  • Dedicated to Daniel E. Koshland Jr., outstanding chemist, biochemist, and friend.


Cancer is a disease of “outlaw” cells that become mutated in regulatory mechanisms. They have lost normal self controls and relationships to the whole organism. Cancers can progress by several pathways from a normal cell to malignant cancer, from bad to worse. Questions about advisability of treatment for some cancers arise from the possibility that they are arrested during progression and so never become lethal. Techniques could be developed to determine the degree of progression and possibility for successful treatment. This article is intended to suggest a way of looking at cancer. It is not a review so references to research articles are infrequent. J. Cell. Biochem. 102: 1076–1086, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.