Epinephrine is a catecholamine that plays important roles in regulating a wide variety of physiological systems by acting through the adrenergic receptors (ARs). The cellular responses to AR stimulation are mediated through various signaling pathways. Therefore, this study examined the effects of epinephrine on DNA synthesis and related signaling molecules in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Epinephrine increased DNA synthesis in a dose- and time-dependent manner, as determined by the level of [3H]-thymidine incorporation. AR subtypes (α1A, α2A, β1, β2, and β3) were expressed in mouse ESCs and their expression levels were increased by epinephrine. In this experiment, epinephrine increased cAMP levels, intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), and translocation of protein kinase C (PKC) from the cytosol to the membrane compartment. In addition, we observed Akt phosphorylation in response to epinephrine; this was stimulated by phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Epinephrine also induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 (p44/42 MAPKs), while inhibition of PKC or Akt blocked this phosphorylation. Epinephrine increased the mRNA levels of proto-oncogenes (c-fos, c-jun, c-myc), while inhibition of ERK1/2 decreased these mRNA levels. In experiments aimed at examining the involvement of cell cycle regulatory proteins, epinephrine increased the levels of cyclin E/cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) and cyclin D1/cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4). In conclusion, epinephrine stimulates DNA synthesis via ERK1/2 through cAMP, Ca2+/PKC, and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways in mouse ESCs. J. Cell. Biochem. 104: 1407–1420, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.