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Keywords:

  • bone sialoprotein;
  • migration;
  • cancer;
  • MMPs

Abstract

Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is a secreted glycoprotein found in mineralized tissues however, BSP is aberrantly expressed in a variety of osteotropic tumors. Elevated BSP expression in breast and prostate primary carcinomas is directly correlated with increased bone metastases and tumor progression. In this study, the intracellular signaling pathways responsible for BSP-induced migration and tumor survival were examined in breast and prostate cancer cells (MDA-MB-231, Hs578T and PC3). Additionally, the effects of exogenous TGF-β1 and EGF, cytokines associated with tumor metastasis and present in high-levels in the bone microenvironment, were examined in BSP-expressing cancer cells. Expression of BSP but not an integrin-binding mutant (BSP-KAE) in tumor cell lines resulted in increased levels of αv-containing integrins and number of mature focal adhesions. Adhesion of cells to recombinant BSP or the expression of BSP stimulated focal adhesion kinase and ERK phosphorylation, as well as activated AP-1-family proteins. Activation of these pathways by BSP expression increased the expression of the matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2, MMP-9, and MMP-14. The BSP-mediated activation of the FAK-associated pathway resulted in increased cancer cell invasion in a Matrigel-coated Boyden-chamber assay and increased cell survival upon withdrawal of serum. Addition of EGF or TGF-β1 to the BSP-expressing cell lines significantly increased ERK phosphorylation, AP-1 activation, MMP-2 expression, cell migration and survival compared to untreated cells expressing BSP. This study thus defines the cooperative mechanisms by which BSP can enhance specific factors associated with a metastatic phenotype in tumor cell lines, an effect that is increased by circulating TGF-β1 and EGF. J. Cell. Biochem. 107: 1118–1128, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.