Bradykinin is produced and acts at the site of injury and inflammation. Recent reports have also shown that bradykinin selectively modulates blood–tumor barrier permeability. However, the molecular mechanisms and pathologic roles underlying bradykinin-induced glioma migration remain unclear. Glioma is the most common primary adult brain tumor, with a poor prognosis because of the ease with which tumor cells spread to other regions of the brain. In this study, we found that bradykinin increases the cell migration and expression of cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) in glioma cells. Bradykinin-mediated migration was attenuated by the selective COX-2 inhibitor NS-398. Moreover, increased motility of glioma cells and expression of COX-2 were mimicked by a bradykinin B1 receptor (B1R) agonist and markedly inhibited by a B1R antagonist. Bradykinin-mediated migration was attenuated by phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI-3 kinase)/AKT inhibitors LY 294002 and wortmannin. Bradykinin stimulation also increased the phosphorylation of the p85 subunit of PI-3 kinase and serine 473 of AKT. Treatment of bradykinin with AP-1 inhibitors Tanshinone IIA and curcumin also reduced COX-2 expression and glioma cell migration. Moreover, treatment of bradykinin also induced phosphorylation of c-Jun in glioma cells. AP-1 promoter analysis in the luciferase reporter construct showed that bradykinin increased AP-1 transcription activity and was inhibited by LY 294002 and wortmannin. One mechanism underlying bradykinin-directed migration is transcriptional up-regulation of COX-2 and activation of the B1R receptor, PI-3 kinase, AKT, c-Jun, and AP-1 pathways. J. Cell. Biochem. 110: 141–150, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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