The derivation of neural lineages from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in vitro is based largely on exposure of hESCs to exogenous signals and substrates, designed to mimic conditions in the developing embryo. However, selection of specific lineages and the discovery of gene function in human neural development may be enhanced by the ability to intrinsically regulate gene expression. Recombinant lentiviral vectors provide an efficient method to stably introduce genes into hESC and their differentiating derivatives. Here we review the methods used to derive neural cells from hESCs, transduction of these cells with lentiviral vectors, and improvements that have been made to the vectors to enhance viral integration and transgene expression. Finally, we explore prospects for future uses of lentiviral vectors in hESC research, including their applications in library screening for drug development, zinc finger nucleases for gene editing and optogenetics to interrogate cellular pathways and function. J. Cell. Biochem. 112: 1955–1962, 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.