Complement C3a and C5a modulate osteoclast formation and inflammatory response of osteoblasts in synergism with IL-1β

Authors

  • Anita Ignatius,

    Corresponding author
    1. Institute of Orthopaedic Research and Biomechanics, Center of Musculoskeletal Research Ulm, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany
    • Institute of Orthopaedic Research and Biomechanics, Center of Musculoskeletal Research, University of Ulm, Helmholtzstraße 14, D-89081 Ulm, Germany.
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  • Philipp Schoengraf,

    1. Institute of Orthopaedic Research and Biomechanics, Center of Musculoskeletal Research Ulm, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany
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  • Ludwika Kreja,

    1. Institute of Orthopaedic Research and Biomechanics, Center of Musculoskeletal Research Ulm, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany
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  • Astrid Liedert,

    1. Institute of Orthopaedic Research and Biomechanics, Center of Musculoskeletal Research Ulm, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany
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  • Stefan Recknagel,

    1. Institute of Orthopaedic Research and Biomechanics, Center of Musculoskeletal Research Ulm, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany
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  • Sebastian Kandert,

    1. Institute of Orthopaedic Research and Biomechanics, Center of Musculoskeletal Research Ulm, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany
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  • Rolf E. Brenner,

    1. Division of Biochemistry of Joint and Connective Tissue Diseases, Department of Orthopaedics, Center of Musculoskeletal Research Ulm, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany
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  • Marion Schneider,

    1. Department of Anaesthesiology, University Hospital Medical School Ulm, Center of Musculoskeletal Research Ulm, Ulm, Germany
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  • John D. Lambris,

    1. Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19106
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  • Markus Huber-Lang

    1. Department of Traumatology, Hand-, Plastic-, and Reconstructive Surgery, Center of Surgery, Center of Musculoskeletal Research Ulm, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany
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Abstract

There is a tight interaction of the bone and the immune system. However, little is known about the relevance of the complement system, an important part of innate immunity and a crucial trigger for inflammation. The aim of this study was, therefore, to investigate the presence and function of complement in bone cells including osteoblasts, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), and osteoclasts. qRT-PCR and immunostaining revealed that the central complement receptors C3aR and C5aR, complement C3 and C5, and membrane-bound regulatory proteins CD46, CD55, and CD59 were expressed in human MSC, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts. Furthermore, osteoblasts and particularly osteoclasts were able to activate complement by cleaving C5 to its active form C5a as measured by ELISA. Both C3a and C5a alone were unable to trigger the release of inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 from osteoblasts. However, co-stimulation with the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β significantly induced IL-6 and IL-8 expression as well as the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) indicating that complement may modulate the inflammatory response of osteoblastic cells in a pro-inflammatory environment as well as osteoblast–osteoclast interaction. While C3a and C5a did not affect osteogenic differentiation, osteoclastogenesis was significantly induced even in the absence of RANKL and macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) suggesting that complement could directly regulate osteoclast formation. It can therefore be proposed that complement may enhance the inflammatory response of osteoblasts and increase osteoclast formation, particularly in a pro-inflammatory environment, for example, during bone healing or in inflammatory bone disorders. J. Cell. Biochem. 112: 2594–2605, 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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