Resveratrol, a natural polyphenol abundantly found in grape skins and red wine, possesses diverse biochemical and physiological actions, including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidation, anti-proliferation and promotion of differentiation, and chemopreventive effects. Recently, it is attracting increased attention due to its health benefits, especially in common age-related diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, type 2 diabetes, and neurological conditions. In this review, we discuss the latest cellular and molecular findings that account for the beneficial actions of resveratrol. J. Cell. Biochem. 113: 752–759, 2012. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.