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Procyanidins from grape pomace are suitable inhibitors of human endothelial NADPH oxidase

Authors

  • Ezequiel Álvarez,

    Corresponding author
    1. Facultad de Medicina y Odontología, Departamento de Medicina, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela and Servicio de Cardiología, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain
    • Laboratorio n°6, Instituto de Investigaciones Sanitarias de Santiago, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela, c/Travesía de la Choupana s/n, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
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  • Bruno K. Rodiño-Janeiro,

    1. Facultad de Medicina y Odontología, Departamento de Medicina, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela and Servicio de Cardiología, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain
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  • María Jerez,

    1. Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
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  • Rafael Ucieda-Somoza,

    1. Unidad de Medicina Materno-Fetal, Servicio de Obstetricia, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain
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  • María J. Núñez,

    1. Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
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  • José R. González-Juanatey

    1. Facultad de Medicina y Odontología, Departamento de Medicina, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela and Servicio de Cardiología, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain
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  • Ezequiel Álvarez and Bruno K. Rodiño-Janeiro contributed equally to this study.

Abstract

Procyanidins have been associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this benefit are not fully understood. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production generated by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase is a common problem in different cardiovascular diseases. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of procyanidin-rich fractions from distilled grape pomace on NADPH oxidase activity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Three differently polymerized and galloylated procyanidin fractions were analyzed for their NADPH oxidase inhibitory activity in cell lysates and in HUVEC cultures. All of the three fractions, up to 1 µg/ml, equally inhibited isolated NADPH oxidase in HUVEC lysates in a concentration-dependent manner and independently of any superoxide anion scavenging activities. The procyanidin fractions even blocked NADPH oxidase activity in intact HUVEC, inhibiting ROS production at both extra- and intracellular levels. The fractions achieved the same effects that known NADPH oxidase inhibitors, such as diphenylene iodonium and apocynin, but they presented better hydrosolubility. Our results demonstrated that procyanidin from grape pomace inhibit human endothelial NADPH oxidase regardless of their polymerization degree and galloylation percentage. Therefore, procyanidins are suitable NADPH oxidase inhibitors which could serve as models for therapeutic alternatives for cardiovascular diseases. J. Cell. Biochem. 113: 1386–1396, 2012. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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