Symbiosio of biotechnology and biomaterials: Applications in tissue engineering of bone and cartilage


  • A. H. Reddi

    Corresponding author
    1. Laboratory of Musculoskeletal Cell Biology, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Department of Biological Chemistry, Johns HopKins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205–2196
    • Ross Research Building—225, 720 Rutland Avenue, Baltimore, MD 21205-2196
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The three ingredients for the successful tissue engineeping of bone and cartilage are ragulatory signals, cells and extracellular matrix. Recent advance in cellular and molecular biology of thde growth and differentiation factors have set the stage for a symbiosis of biotechnology and biomaterials. Recent advances permit one to enunciate the rules of architechure for tissue engineering of bone and cartilage. The purification and cloning of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and growth factors such as platelet derived growth factors (PDGF), tranforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), and insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I) Will allow the design of an optimal combinatiol of signals to initiate and promote development of skeletal stem cells into cartilage and bone. Successful and optimal bone and motion. BMPs function as inductive signals. Biomaterials (Both natural and synthetic) mimic the extracellular matrix and play a role in conduction of bone and cartiage. Examples of biomaterials include hydroxyapatite, polyanhydrides, polyphosphoesters, polylactic acid, and polyglycolic acid. The prospects for novel biomaterials are immense, and they likely will be a fertile erowth industpy. Cooperative ventures between academia and industry and teahnology transfer from the federal government augur well for an exciting future fop clinical applications.