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Journal of Cellular Biochemistry

BAI, A novel cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor induces apoptosis in A549 cells through activation of caspases and inactivation of Akt

Authors

  • Shin Kim,

    1. Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Keimyung University, 1095 Dalgubeoldaero, Dalseo-Gu, Daegu 704-701, South Korea
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  • Jinho Lee,

    1. Department of Chemistry, Keimyung University, 1095 Dalgubeoldaero, Dalseo-Gu, Daegu 704-701, South Korea
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  • Byeong-Churl Jang,

    1. Department of Medical Genetic Engineering, School of Medicine, Keimyung University, 1095 Dalgubeoldaero, Dalseo-Gu, Daegu 704-701, South Korea
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  • Taeg Kyu Kwon,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Keimyung University, 1095 Dalgubeoldaero, Dalseo-Gu, Daegu 704-701, South Korea
    • Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Keimyung University, 1095 Dalgubeoldaero, Dalseo-Gu, Daegu 704-701, South Korea.
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  • Jong-Wook Park

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Keimyung University, 1095 Dalgubeoldaero, Dalseo-Gu, Daegu 704-701, South Korea
    • Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Keimyung University, 1095 Dalgubeoldaero, Dalseo-Gu, Daegu 704-701, South Korea.
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Abstract

Previously, we have synthesized a novel cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor, 2-[1,1′biphenyl]-4-yl-N-[5-(1,1-dioxo-1λ6-isothiazolidin-2-yl)-1H-indazol-3-yl]acetamide (BAI) and reported its anti-cancer activity in head and neck cancer cells. In this study, we further evaluated the effect of BAI on growth of various human cancer cell lines, including A549 (nonsmall cell lung cancer), HCT116 (colon), and Caki (kidney). Profoundly, results of XTT and clonogenic assays demonstrated that BAI at nanomolar concentrations (20–60 nM) inhibited growth of A549, HCT116, and Caki cells, suggesting the anti-cancer potency. We show that BAI induced a dose-dependent apoptotic cell death in these human cancer cells, as measured by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Interestingly, further biochemical analysis showed that treatment with BAI at 20 nM induced apoptosis in A549 cells in association with activation of caspases, cleavage of phospholipase C-γ1 (PLC-γ1), and inhibition of Akt in A549 cells. Importantly, pharmacological inhibition study revealed that pretreatment with z-VAD-fmk, a pan caspase inhibitor strongly blocked the BAI-induced apoptosis in A549 cells. Transfection analysis with Akt cDNA encoding constitutively active Akt further addressed the significance of Akt inhibition in the BAI-induced apoptosis in A549 cells. Notably, disruption of the PI3K/Akt pathway by LY294002, a PI3K/Akt inhibitor potentiated apoptosis in A549 cells by BAI at a subcytotoxic concentration. These findings collectively suggest that BAI potently inhibits growth of A549, HCT116, and Caki cells, and that the BAI-induced apoptosis in A549 cells is associated with activation of caspases, and inhibition of Akt. J. Cell. Biochem. 114: 282–293, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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