Boule is a conserved gene in meiosis, which encodes RNA binding protein required for spermatocyte meiosis. Deletion of Boule was found to block meiosis in spermatogenesis, which contributes to infertility. Up to date, the expression and function of Boule in the goat testis are not known. The objectives of this study were to investigate the expression pattern of Boule in dairy goat testis and their function in male germline stem cells (mGSCs). The results first revealed that the expression level of Boule in adult testes was significantly higher than younger and immature goats, and azoospermia and male intersex testis. Over-expression of Boule promoted the expression of meiosis-related genes in dairy goat mGSCs. The expression of Stra8 was up-regulated by over-expression of Boule analyzed by Western blotting and Luciferase reporter assay. While, Cdc25a, the downstream regulator of Boule, was found not to affect the expression of Stra8, and our data illustrated that Cdc25a did not regulate meiosis via Stra8. The expression of Stra8 and Boule was up-regulated by RA induction. Taken together, results suggest the Boule plays an important role in dairy goat spermatogenesis and that over-expression of Boule may promote spermatogenesis and meiosis in dairy goat. J. Cell. Biochem. 114: 294–302, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.