Proteins function is regulated by co-translational modifications and post-translational modifications (PTMs) such as phosphorylation, glycosylation, and acetylation, which induce proteins to perform multiple tasks in a specified environment. Acetylation takes place post-translationally on the ε-amino group of Lys in histone proteins, allowing regulation of gene expression. Furthermore, amino group acetylation also occurs co-translationally on Ser, Thr, Gly, Met, and Ala, possibly contributing to the stability of proteins. In this work, the influence of amino acids next to acetylated sites has been investigated by using MAPRes (Mining Association Patterns among preferred amino acid residues in the vicinity of amino acids targeted for PTMs). MAPRes was utilized to examine the sequence patterns vicinal to modified and non-modified residues, taking into account their charge and polarity. The PTMs data were further sub-divided according to their sub-cellular location (nuclear, mitochondrial, and cytoplasmic), and their association patterns were mined. The association patterns mined by MAPRes for acetylated and non-acetylated residues are consistent with the existing literature but also revealed novel patterns. These rules have been utilized to describe the acetylation and its effects on the protein structure-function relationship. J. Cell. Biochem. 114: 874–887, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.