microRNA (miRNA) is a family of small, non-coding RNA first discovered as an important regulator of development in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Numerous miRNAs have been found in C. elegans, and some of them are well conserved in many organisms. Though, the biologic function of miRNAs in C. elegans was largely unknown, more and more studies support the idea that miRNA is an important molecular for C. elegans. In this review, we revisit the research progress of miRNAs in C. elegans related with development, aging, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases and compared the function of miRNAs between C. elegans and human. J. Cell. Biochem. 114: 994–1000, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.