miRNAs are expressed in many mammalian cells, acting specific roles in regulating gene expression or mediating special mRNAs cleavage by targeting their 3′-untranslated region (3′UTR). Some miRNAs are essential and important for animal development. However, it is still unclear what the relationship is between miR-34c and mammalian spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). We found that a conserved microRNA-34c through its target-Nanos2, regulating SSCs' differentiation in mouse. Immunohistochemistry analysis of Nanos2 and miR-34c FISH results revealed the opposite expression trends between them. Seven bioinformatics websites and programs predicted that miR-34c has interaction sites in Nanos2's 3′UTR. Dual-luciferase reporter vector and mutated dual-luciferase reporter vector analysis validated that they are interacted. After transfection miR-34c mimics into mouse SSCs, or miR-34c lentiviral vector in vitro co-cultivation with seminiferous tubules, and Western blot analysis demonstrated that miR-34c over-expression could suppress Nanos2 expression in post-transcription level. Our experiments identified that miR-34c may promote meiosis process by interacting with Nanos2 leading up-regulation of Stra8 in mouse spermatogonial stem cells. J. Cell. Biochem. 115: 232–242, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.